New ICGI co-chairs have been elected

International Cotton Genome Initiative (ICGI) has completed 2015 election process, and as a result, six new co-chairs for overall chairing and ICGI work groups have been elected for 2017-2019 terms:

ICGI Overall – Dr. John Yu (USA)

Breeding and Applied Genomics – Dr. Jodi Scheffler (USA)

Comparative Genomics and Bioinformatics – Dr. Ibrokhim Abdurakhmonov (Uzbekistan)

Functional Genomics – Dr. Guoli Song ( China)

Germplasm & Genetic Stocks – Dr. Xiongming Du (China)

Structural Genomics – Dr. Wangzhen Guo (China)

Moreover, per election results, 95-97% voters approved new Workgroup structure of ICGI and uses of ICGI funds.

Congratulations for successful election process to ICGI and its new co-chairs!

Details of ICGI election results can be fount at: http://www.cottongen.org/icgi/elections

Cotton Research enters to a period of “golden” opportunities

With the recent completion of draft sequencing of diploid cotton Gossypium raimondii and G. arboreum genomes published in Nature Genetics, and the first “gold-standard” version of G. raimondii genome published in Nature, cotton research community enjoyed the pick of many seminal research results that have provided a glorious opportunity to study orthologous and paralogous genes and gene families in allotetraploid cotton.

These successes and great achievements in ancestral diploid genome sequencing further resulted in decoding of the representative genome of widely grown allotetraploid Upland (G. hirsutum L.) cotton, Texas Marker-1.

Two independent research papers published in Nature Biotechnology by Zhang et al. and Li et al. in this week issue described the complex allotetraploid TM-1 genome that further entered cotton research to an era of “golden” opportunities providing the first insights into allotetraploid cotton genome structure, genome rearrangements, gene evolution, cotton fiber biology and biotechnology that will help to rapidly translate the genomics “knowledge” to an “economic impact”!

Congratulation to all cotton community with these latest achievements, high impact journal seminal publications, and hard work to foster cotton research!

Effects of mepiquat chloride on yield and main properties of cottonseed under different plant densities

[Background] Cottonseed oil and protein content as well as germination traits are major indicators of seed quality. However, the responses of these indicators to plant density and mepiquat chloride (MC) are still uncertain. To investigate plant density and MC effects on cottonseed yield and main quality parameters, we conducted a two-year field experiment including four plant densities (1.35, 2.55, 3.75 and 4.95 plants·m− 2) and two doses of MC (0 and 135 g·hm− 2) in Dafeng, Jiangsu Province, in 2013 and 2014.

[Results] The application of MC reduced plant height, fruit branch length and fruiting branch number under different plant densities, resulting in a lower and more compact plant canopy. Cottonseed yield showed a nonlinear increase as plant density increasing and achieved the highest value at 3.75 plants·m− 2, regardless of MC application. No significant interactions were found between plant density and MC for cottonseed yield and quality parameters. The 100-seed weight, cottonseed oil content and vigor index significantly decreased as plant density increased, while these parameters significantly increased with MC applying under different plant densities. Seed vigor index was positively correlated with 100-seed weight and seed oil content across different plant densities and MC treatments.

[Conclusions] Thus, application of MC could realize a win-win situation between cottonseed yield and main quality parameters under various densities; and plant density of 3.75 plants·m− 2combined with 135 g·hm− 2 of MC applying is optimal for high cottonseed yield and quality in this cotton production area.

 

[Title] Effects of mepiquat chloride on yield and main properties of cottonseed under different plant densities

[Authors] ZHAO Wenqing, YAN Qiang, YANG Hongkun, YANG Xiaoni, WANG Leran, CHEN Binglin, MENG Yali and ZHOU Zhiguo

Journal of Cotton Research. 2019; 2:10

https://doi.org/10.1186/s42397-019-0026-1

Amino acids application enhances flowers insecticidal protein content in Bt cotton

[Background] Low insecticidal protein expression at reproductive organs affect insect resistance in Bt transgenic cotton. In order to enhance flower insecticidal protein expression, the conventional cultivar Sikang1 (S1) and the hybrid cultivar Sikang3 (S3) were used as experimental materials; the applications of selected 5 types of amino acids and 21 types of amino acids were sprayed on the flowers in 2016 and 2017 cotton growing seasons.

[Results] The flower Bt protein contents increased significantly under the two amino acid treatments in both cultivars, the Bt protein concentration increased by 15.2 to 25.8% compared with the control. However, no significant differences were detected between the two treatments of amino acid application. Increased amino acid and soluble protein contents, enhanced GPT, GOT, protease,and peptidase activities were observed under the amino acid application at the flowering stage.

[Conclusions] These results suggest that exterior application of the amino acids treatments could bolster the flower insecticidal protein expression.

[Authors] TAMBEL Leila. I. M., ZHOU Mingyuan, CHEN Yuan, ZHANG Xiang, CHEN Yuan  and CHEN Dehua

Journal of Cotton Research. 2019; 2:7
https://doi.org/10.1186/s42397-019-0023-4

Feasibility assessment of phenotyping cotton fiber maturity using infrared spectroscopy and algorithms for genotyping analyses

[Background] Cotton fiber maturity is an important property that partially determines the processing and performance of cotton. Due to difficulties of obtaining fiber maturity values accurately from every plant of a genetic population, cotton geneticists often use micronaire (MIC) and/or lint percentage for classifying immature phenotypes from mature fiber phenotypes although they are complex fiber traits. The recent development of an algorithm for determining cotton fiber maturity (MIR) from Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra explores a novel way to measure fiber maturity efficiently and accurately. However, the algorithm has not been tested with a genetic population consisting of a large number of progeny plants.

[Results] The merits and limits of the MIC- or lint percentage-based phenotyping method were demonstrated by comparing the observed phenotypes with the predicted phenotypes based on their DNA marker genotypes in a genetic population consisting of 708 F2 plants with various fiber maturity. The observed MIC-based fiber phenotypes matched to the predicted phenotypes better than the observed lint percentage-based fiber phenotypes. The lint percentage was obtained from each of F2 plants, whereas the MIC values were unable to be obtained from the entire population since certain F2 plants produced insufficient fiber mass for their measurements. To test the feasibility of cotton fiber infrared maturity (MIR) as a viable phenotyping tool for genetic analyses, we measured FT-IR spectra from the second population composed of 80 F2 plants with various fiber maturities, determined MIR values using the algorithms, and compared them with their genotypes in addition to other fiber phenotypes. The results showed that MIR values were successfully obtained from each of the F2 plants, and the observed MIR-based phenotypes fit well to the predicted phenotypes based on their DNA marker genotypes as well as the observed phenotypes based on a combination of MIC and lint percentage.

[Conclusions] The MIR value obtained from FT-IR spectra of cotton fibers is able to accurately assess fiber maturity of all plants of a population in a quantitative way. The technique provides an option for cotton geneticists to determine fiber maturity rapidly and efficiently.

[Authors] KIM Hee Jin, LIU Yongliang, FANG David D. and DELHOM Christopher D.

Journal of Cotton Research2019; 2:8

https://doi.org/10.1186/s42397-019-0027-0

Genetic effects conferring heat tolerance in upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)

[Background] Climate change and particularly global warming has emerged as an alarming threat to the crop productivity of field crops and exerted drastic effects on the cropping patterns. Production of cotton has been dropped down to one million bales from 1.4 million bales since 2015 in Pakistan due to the increase in temperature at critical growth stages, i.e., flowering and boll formation. Keeping in view the importance of cotton in the country, this study was conducted to investigate the genetic effects conferring heat tolerance in six populations (P1, P2, F1, F2, BC1 and BC2) developed from cross-1 and cross-2, i.e., VH-282 × FH-142 and DNH-40 × VH-259.

[Results] The results revealed that cross-1 performed better in heat stress as compared with cross-2 for majority of the traits recorded. Boll weight and ginning outturn (GOT) were highly effected under heat stress and had negative correlation with Relative cell injury (RCI). Boll weight, fiber length, fiber strength and fiber fineness were under the control of non-additive gene action, whereas RCI was controlled by additive gene effects. Lower values of genetic advance coupled with higher values of broad sense heritability for these traits except RCI confirmed the role of non-additive genetic effects. Duplicate types of epistasis were recorded for fiber strength in cross-1 in normal condition. However, complementary type of non-allelic interaction was recorded for fiber strength under normal condition, fiber fineness and RCI under heat stressed condition in cross-1. Likewise, boll weight, GOT and fiber length in populations derived from cross-2 in normal condition were also under the influence of complementary type of non-allelic interaction. Significant differences among values of mid parent and better parent heterosis for boll weight in both normal and heat stress condition provided the opportunity to cotton breeders for utilization of this germplasm for improvement of this trait through exploitation of heterosis breeding.

[Conclusion] Cross-1 performed better in heat stress and could be utilized for development of heat tolerant cultivar. RCI was under the influence of additive gene action, so one can rely on this trait for screening of large number of accessions of cotton for heat stress. While other traits were predominantly controlled by non-additive gene action and selection based on these should be delayed in later generations.

 

[Authors] SALMAN Muhammad, ZIA Zia Ullah, RANA Iqrar Ahmad, MAQSOOD Rana Haroon, AHMAD Saghir, BAKHSH Ali, AZHAR Muhammad Tehseen

Journal of Cotton Research. 2019; 2: 9

https://doi.org/10.1186/s42397-019-0025-2

Comparative studies on seed protein characteristics in eight lines of two Gossypium species

[Abstract]
Background: In order to achieve the targets aiming at the improvement of protein quality, knowledge regarding seed protein fractions and polypeptides constituting them in different crops is essential. Besides having high nutritional value as animal feed and human food, the protein isolates from cottonseed meal have also been proven promising as industrial raw materials for a number of applications. As far as Indian work on the characterization of cotton seed proteins is concerned, relatively meagre reports are available. Keeping in mind the importance of cotton seed proteins, lines belonging to Gossypium arboreum L. (Indian cotton) and G. hirsutum L. (American cotton) which are grown in all the major cotton growing states in India were selected for analysing their seed protein characteristics.

Results: Whereas G. arboreum (A-genome) lines revealed a lower range of seed protein content i.e. 19.5~24.3%, an upper range (21.8~29.5%) could be observed in lines of G. hirsutum (AD-genome). Globulins represented dominating fraction in both species followed by albumins, glutelins and prolamins. A significant positive correlation between albumins/globulins and seed protein content in G. arboreum /G. hirsutum, respectively, was observed. Intraspecific electrophoretic variation in seed protein extracts was observed in the region of molecular weight 22 kDa – 27 kDa in lines of both the species; however some lines with A-genome showed similarity in banding pattern with AD-genome. Four polypeptides with disulphide-linkages were also reported for the first time. Albumins were observed to reveal more variations in their electrophoretic pattern between the lines of two species followed by globulins.

Conclusion: On the basis of present and previous studies, screening the lines with low or high protein content will lead the selection of lines with superior polypeptide fraction important for nutritional and industrial purposes. On comparing the composition and behaviour of four 2-S linked polypeptides with other plant groups, these were suggested to be legumin-like in nature. The similarity in banding patterns between the lines of A-genome and AD-genome species marked towards the close evolutionary relationship between these two. Albumin fractions on the basis of our results could be taken for cultivar differentiation in cotton crop.

[Keywords]
Gossypium, SDS-PAGE, Seed proteins, Globulins

Original text: https://jcottonres.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s42397-019-0024-3

[Authors] SINGH Arvinder, KAUR Amanjot

Use of genetic and genomic approaches for combating cotton leaf curl disease

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Authors

Rahman, Mehboob-ur-1; Ali, Ahmed1; Qaiser khan, Ali1; Abbas, Ammad1; Rahmat, Zainab1; Sarfraz, Zareen1; Khalid, Anum1; Gul, Maryam1; Munir, Atif1; Atifiqbal, Muhammad1; Scheffler, Jodi2; Scheffler, Brain2;

1National Institute for Biotechnology & Genetic Engineering (NIBGE) Faisalabad, Pakistan. 2Jamie Whitten Delta States Research Center, Stoneville, Mississippi, USA

Abstract

Cotton leaf curl, a disease of viral origin, is transmitted by a whitefly (Bemisiatabaci), was first reported in 1912 in Nigeria, and later spread to Egypt, Sudan, India and Pakistan, and recently in China. The disease has significantly challenged the sustainability of cotton production in Pakistan with annual yield penalty of two million bales. Efforts were made in developing resistant cotton varieties, which upheld the resistance for couple of years but overcame by the evolution of new strain of the virus (now called as cotton leaf curl Burewala virus). For protecting the most important natural fiber producing crop, a mega project aiming at the improvement of genetics of the cotton plant for combating the disease, was initiated in 2011 under Pak-US (managed through ICARDA, Pakistan) joint venture program. Till now, more than 3500 cotton accessions have been screened; and 33 accessions were found asymptomatic while G. hirsutum 2472-3 and G. hirsutum 3661 showed high tolerance to the disease. Among the asymptomatic, G. hirsutum Mac-07 (photoperiod insensitive) is being used extensively by multiple cotton research institutes for developing resistant cotton cultivars. A number of mapping populations by involving tolerant and resistant cotton genotypes with the mostsusceptible cotton species were developed. For example, mapping populations were developed by crossingG. hirsutum 2472-3 (tolerant), G. hirsutum Mac-07 (resistant) and highly sensitive genotypes G. barbadense PGMB-66, G. barbadense PIMA S7, respectively. A total of 1200 SSRs were surveyed on parent genotypes of G. hirsutum 2472-3 and G. barbadense PGMB-66 (Cross-I). Out of these, 113 were found polymorphic. These were surveyed on F2population. In second population (derived from a cross G. hir 2472-3/G. bar PIMA S-7, Cross-II), we surveyed 170 SSRs. Out of these, 24 polymorphic were surveyed on F2population. Similarly, we too surveyed 435 SSRs on the parent genotypes of third mapping population (Mac-7/PIMA S-7, Cross-III). A total of 18 polymorphic primers were surveyed on F2 population. Based on our limited studies, we were able to identify two QTLs i.e. QCLCuD25 and QCLCuD26 from Cross-I population study, six QTLs i.e. QCLCuD3, QCLCuD4, QCLCuD7, QCLCuD8, QCLCuD9, QCLCuD14 from Cross-II population study, and three QTLs from cross-III population. These studies will pave the way for not only initiating marker-assisted breeding for the development of resistant cotton cultivars in Pakistan but will also provide a comprehensive information to the international cotton community for combating the disease.

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Comparative advantage of cotton crop over other crops in Pakistan

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Author

DR MUHAMMAD ALI TALPUR

Director, Directorate of Marketing & Economic Research, Pakistan Central Cotton Committee, Multan, Pakistan.

Corresponding author =  dmer@pccc.gov.pk

mir_alitalpur@yahoo.com

Abstract

Cotton being a cash crop contributes significantly to the national exchequer of Pakistan. It accounts for 1.5 percent in GDP, 7.1 percent in agriculture value addition and Cotton and textile exports fetched US$ 10.22 billion in 2014-15 (Economic survey-2014-15) . Cotton crop covered an area of 2.96 million hectares in 2014-15 and produced 13.98 million bales. This paper highlights the economics  of  cotton as  compared to other competing crops in Pakistan. Cotton crop, competes with rice, sugarcane and other crops for land, water and other farm resources in the area where the cultivation of all other crops is technically feasible. Mainly cotton faces indirect competition from sugarcane, the annual crop which keeps the land throughout the year. The farmer gives priority and takes decision on the economics of cotton and competing crops on the basis of inputs-outputs prices paid and received. The estimation of the indicators, like gross cost, gross income, gross margin, net income, input-output ratio, etc may provide the useful sights to the growers at farm level.

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Nuclear male sterility in desi cotton (gossypium arboreum l.)

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Author

Dharminder Pathak

Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics

Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana – 141004, Punjab, India

Abstract

Heterosis breeding has played rich dividends in crop plants including cotton and is a sure way of increasing crop production and productivity in a shorter time span. In India, all the four cultivated species of cotton and their interspecific (G. hirsutum x G. barbadense; G. arboreum x G. herbaceum) hybrids are grown. In fact, India has been a leader in the production and commercialization of cotton hybrids. Earlier, hand emasculation and pollination was used for the production of hybrid seeds in G. arboreum in India. LDH 11 (1994) was the first commercial intra-arboreum hybrid in the entire North Indian cotton growing states. However, manual emasculation of the floral buds makes hybrid seed production more labour intensive. Availability of genetic male sterile (GMS) lines such as DS-5, GAK 423 has resulted in the development and commercialization of several desi cotton hybrids. Some of the intra-arboreum hybrids released for commercial cultivation in different North Zone states using DS 5 as the female parent include AAH 1, Moti (LMDH 8), Raj DH 9, CICR 2, PAU 626H, and FMDH 9. There are certain limitations nuclear male sterility system. For example, no marker linked to male sterility trait is available at the seedling state in DS 5 and male sterile/fertile plants have to be identified at the flowering stage only. As in a GMS line male fertile and sterile plants are observed in a frequency of about 1:1, and fertile plants have to be removed, about half of the plants in a GMS line are available for hybrid seed production, that increases the cost of the hybrid seed. Though, genetic control of male sterility in DS-5 is simple (monogenic), yet the transfer of this trait/gene in different lines is very time consuming due to its recessive nature. Efforts to map the gene conditioning male sterility in DS 5 with molecular markers are going on in our Department. Mapping of this gene will facilitate its precise  transfer across the genotypes and identification of male sterile plants at the seedling stage.

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Developing a DNA -based Technology for Identifying the presence and percentage of Egyptian cotton fibers in various textile products

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Authors

Mohamed A. Negm and Suzan H. Sanad

Cotton Research Institute. Agric. Res. Center, Giza, Egypt

Abstract

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a complex molecule found in almost all cells of the human body as well as other living organisms. DNA carries the genetic code that is needed for human cells and the organism as a whole. It is also the means by which genetic information is passed from one generation to the next.

In the past two decades, advances in forensic genetics have made it possible to perform paternity diagnoses involving solely the alleged father’s genetic information and that of his descendant when there is a high enough degree of biomathematical certainty in order to consider the results reliable. DNA technology becomes one of the forefront sciences in parallel with Nanotechnology.

The commercially grown cotton varieties used in production of textile products belong two different species, Gossypium barbadense, known as Egyptian cotton, and characterized by higher quality and price, and Gossypium hirsutum known as Upland or American cotton, and characterized by lower quality and price. Textile made from world-wide known Extra-Long & Long Staple Egyptian cotton varieties are of higher quality and price than those produced by Upland cotton. Thus, textiles produced from ELS Egyptian Cotton fibers are considered more valuable in the textile marketplace. In last time, there is no real method to indentify (differentiate) between the expensive cotton “Egyptian cotton” and cheap cotton “Upland cotton” in yarns, fabric, particularly, if the fabric made of blending the two cottons.

The aim of current research paper is to establish a DNA databases and technical methods which can be used at as powerful tools in the identification of Egyptian cotton and foreign cottons. The latter include many cotton species. Research output of the study would certainly guarantee protection of distinguished of Egyptian cotton, and reduces the counterfeits.

The study, indeed, address methods of isolating biological macromolecules particularly nucleic acids from mature cotton fibers. The cotton fibers are processed into yarns, woven or knitted to fabric or finished apparel, prior to the isolation of the biological macromolecules.

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A prospective for a New Leaf Grade by HVI

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Authors

Hazem Fouda1 and Mohamed Negm2

1Cotton Arbitration & Testing General Organization-CATGO, Alexandria- Egypt

2Cotton research institute, Giza-Egypt

Abstract

Trash is a measure of the amount of non-lint materials in cotton, such

 

as leaf and bark from the cotton plant.The instruments work on two principles either gravimetric based i.e., Advanced Fiber Information System, “AFIS” or geometric or surface scanner, ” HVI”. The percentage of the surface area occupied by trash particles (percent area) and the number of trash visible (particle count) are calculated as well.

Trash area solely is not enough for determining leaf grade while a ratio between percent area of trash and trash particle count is a good indicator of the average particle size in a cotton sample. A low percent area combined with a high particle count indicates a smaller average particle size than does a high percent area with a low particle count.

The Aim of the work is: 1) to develop a formula contains both Trash Area and Trash Count measured by the HVI to be used for determining Leaf grade, 2) to develop a New Leaf Grade depending on the developed formula afore mentioned as the current Leaf Grade depends only on the HVI Trash Area reading which is obviously incorrect.

A high percent trash area with low count should result in better spinning mill processing while small trash area percent with high count (pepper trash) should result in bad spinning performance and high nep count in the yarn as they are difficult to remove from the cotton lint than large trash particles.

Leaf grade is a measure of the leaf content in cotton, this research has resulted in a new formula for a new leaf grade which includes both trash area percent and trash count which was in line with the classer’s grade giving samples with small trash particles lower grade than samples with big trash particles unlike the HVI current Leaf Grade.

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