A project worth consideration

An Australian initiative of global relevance

The project is called “Intimidation and voice of research scientists” and is self-clear by its title. It is based on a survey that is elaborated and endorsed in the following documents:

endorsement letter2-compressed 2020 Participant INFORMATION SHEET-2019459_V2

Participant INFORMATION SHEET-2019459_V2


Efficient research asks for protection from pressure

This is my personal belief and hopefully shared by many. Pressure and intimidation exist. Less than ten years ago, I got to withdraw a paper from a renown journal because of the pressure my co-author faced in his institution less than 48 hours the paper was submitted to the journal.

The extent of the phenomenon is nevertheless hard to assess and hence seldom assessed. This is the reason why I took part to the survey that is open to scientists feeling interest for the topic.

Click here to do the survey:

It took me about 20 minutes and I found the survey properly built.

I hope that that I am not upsetting ICRA members with this  non-specifically cotton post.

History under writing

The content of this post is a replication of a message I have just sent. You can react to my message by commenting this post.

This is to attract your attention to the fact that some of you have taken over the challenge of embarking to write of the history of cotton research. Click on wiki after logging in and discover what has been started for the State of Gujarat, as a chapter of the history of cotton research in India. This chapter will be enriched as additional materials are provided.

The supply of some materials related to the cotton history in Sudan gave me the idea of starting a book dedicated to the tools, implements and devices in cotton production. I believe that many research teams have carried out specific tools for the implementation of their experiments and they could be useful to research fellows in other countries if not to cotton growers producing on small scale. I hope that many of you could contribute to this book.

I do hope that we could actually achieve  a collaborative approach in writing our Gossybooks in our Gossypedia. This means that every one could free to contribute to books under process.

The Gossypedia functionality of our website is well adapted to the collaborative process in the sense that books, chapters or pages are “viewable” by ICRA members only when we decide to. This means that, as long as the writing of a page is not over, it can remain hidden and only viewable to and editable by those endowed with the relevant rights.

Even when some of you volunteer for a book or a chapter, they have been reluctant so far to take command of the Gossypedia tool and play the editor’s role. By default, I am playing this role.Although I understand the hesitation to invest in mastering a web tool, the current way is not sustainable as I should be quitting my position soon.


Cotton research history?

World Cotton Day

As we have been recently recalled, ICAC has launched the initiative of declaring October 7 as the World Cotton Day. Hopefully, in a couple of days, it will become the new UN World Cotton Day and give us some pride in working on cotton.

For sure, the World Cotton Day will be celebrated at various cotton research organizations all over the world, along celebrations initiated by other stakeholders of the cotton industry.

World Cotton Research History?

I nevertheless wonder how we, cotton scientists or professionals, could more specifically celebrate cotton.

I believe that many of you would concur with me that research has contribute a lot to what cotton industry has become in all producing countries. However, is there any track of that? Has the history of cotton research ever been written and updated anywhere? Would it be relevant to initiate the writing of such histories in producing countries so as to compose the World History of Cotton Research?

Answers and challenges are yours! And quite difficult.

More modestly and realistically, would you have ideas of particular research outputs, maybe associated to particular researchers, that you think have been crucial breakthroughs in the development of the cotton industry in your country?


Use of genetic and genomic approaches for combating cotton leaf curl disease

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Rahman, Mehboob-ur-1; Ali, Ahmed1; Qaiser khan, Ali1; Abbas, Ammad1; Rahmat, Zainab1; Sarfraz, Zareen1; Khalid, Anum1; Gul, Maryam1; Munir, Atif1; Atifiqbal, Muhammad1; Scheffler, Jodi2; Scheffler, Brain2;

1National Institute for Biotechnology & Genetic Engineering (NIBGE) Faisalabad, Pakistan. 2Jamie Whitten Delta States Research Center, Stoneville, Mississippi, USA


Cotton leaf curl, a disease of viral origin, is transmitted by a whitefly (Bemisiatabaci), was first reported in 1912 in Nigeria, and later spread to Egypt, Sudan, India and Pakistan, and recently in China. The disease has significantly challenged the sustainability of cotton production in Pakistan with annual yield penalty of two million bales. Efforts were made in developing resistant cotton varieties, which upheld the resistance for couple of years but overcame by the evolution of new strain of the virus (now called as cotton leaf curl Burewala virus). For protecting the most important natural fiber producing crop, a mega project aiming at the improvement of genetics of the cotton plant for combating the disease, was initiated in 2011 under Pak-US (managed through ICARDA, Pakistan) joint venture program. Till now, more than 3500 cotton accessions have been screened; and 33 accessions were found asymptomatic while G. hirsutum 2472-3 and G. hirsutum 3661 showed high tolerance to the disease. Among the asymptomatic, G. hirsutum Mac-07 (photoperiod insensitive) is being used extensively by multiple cotton research institutes for developing resistant cotton cultivars. A number of mapping populations by involving tolerant and resistant cotton genotypes with the mostsusceptible cotton species were developed. For example, mapping populations were developed by crossingG. hirsutum 2472-3 (tolerant), G. hirsutum Mac-07 (resistant) and highly sensitive genotypes G. barbadense PGMB-66, G. barbadense PIMA S7, respectively. A total of 1200 SSRs were surveyed on parent genotypes of G. hirsutum 2472-3 and G. barbadense PGMB-66 (Cross-I). Out of these, 113 were found polymorphic. These were surveyed on F2population. In second population (derived from a cross G. hir 2472-3/G. bar PIMA S-7, Cross-II), we surveyed 170 SSRs. Out of these, 24 polymorphic were surveyed on F2population. Similarly, we too surveyed 435 SSRs on the parent genotypes of third mapping population (Mac-7/PIMA S-7, Cross-III). A total of 18 polymorphic primers were surveyed on F2 population. Based on our limited studies, we were able to identify two QTLs i.e. QCLCuD25 and QCLCuD26 from Cross-I population study, six QTLs i.e. QCLCuD3, QCLCuD4, QCLCuD7, QCLCuD8, QCLCuD9, QCLCuD14 from Cross-II population study, and three QTLs from cross-III population. These studies will pave the way for not only initiating marker-assisted breeding for the development of resistant cotton cultivars in Pakistan but will also provide a comprehensive information to the international cotton community for combating the disease.

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Comparative advantage of cotton crop over other crops in Pakistan

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Director, Directorate of Marketing & Economic Research, Pakistan Central Cotton Committee, Multan, Pakistan.

Corresponding author =  dmer@pccc.gov.pk



Cotton being a cash crop contributes significantly to the national exchequer of Pakistan. It accounts for 1.5 percent in GDP, 7.1 percent in agriculture value addition and Cotton and textile exports fetched US$ 10.22 billion in 2014-15 (Economic survey-2014-15) . Cotton crop covered an area of 2.96 million hectares in 2014-15 and produced 13.98 million bales. This paper highlights the economics  of  cotton as  compared to other competing crops in Pakistan. Cotton crop, competes with rice, sugarcane and other crops for land, water and other farm resources in the area where the cultivation of all other crops is technically feasible. Mainly cotton faces indirect competition from sugarcane, the annual crop which keeps the land throughout the year. The farmer gives priority and takes decision on the economics of cotton and competing crops on the basis of inputs-outputs prices paid and received. The estimation of the indicators, like gross cost, gross income, gross margin, net income, input-output ratio, etc may provide the useful sights to the growers at farm level.

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Nuclear male sterility in desi cotton (gossypium arboreum l.)

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Dharminder Pathak

Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics

Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana – 141004, Punjab, India


Heterosis breeding has played rich dividends in crop plants including cotton and is a sure way of increasing crop production and productivity in a shorter time span. In India, all the four cultivated species of cotton and their interspecific (G. hirsutum x G. barbadense; G. arboreum x G. herbaceum) hybrids are grown. In fact, India has been a leader in the production and commercialization of cotton hybrids. Earlier, hand emasculation and pollination was used for the production of hybrid seeds in G. arboreum in India. LDH 11 (1994) was the first commercial intra-arboreum hybrid in the entire North Indian cotton growing states. However, manual emasculation of the floral buds makes hybrid seed production more labour intensive. Availability of genetic male sterile (GMS) lines such as DS-5, GAK 423 has resulted in the development and commercialization of several desi cotton hybrids. Some of the intra-arboreum hybrids released for commercial cultivation in different North Zone states using DS 5 as the female parent include AAH 1, Moti (LMDH 8), Raj DH 9, CICR 2, PAU 626H, and FMDH 9. There are certain limitations nuclear male sterility system. For example, no marker linked to male sterility trait is available at the seedling state in DS 5 and male sterile/fertile plants have to be identified at the flowering stage only. As in a GMS line male fertile and sterile plants are observed in a frequency of about 1:1, and fertile plants have to be removed, about half of the plants in a GMS line are available for hybrid seed production, that increases the cost of the hybrid seed. Though, genetic control of male sterility in DS-5 is simple (monogenic), yet the transfer of this trait/gene in different lines is very time consuming due to its recessive nature. Efforts to map the gene conditioning male sterility in DS 5 with molecular markers are going on in our Department. Mapping of this gene will facilitate its precise  transfer across the genotypes and identification of male sterile plants at the seedling stage.

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Developing a DNA -based Technology for Identifying the presence and percentage of Egyptian cotton fibers in various textile products

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Mohamed A. Negm and Suzan H. Sanad

Cotton Research Institute. Agric. Res. Center, Giza, Egypt


Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a complex molecule found in almost all cells of the human body as well as other living organisms. DNA carries the genetic code that is needed for human cells and the organism as a whole. It is also the means by which genetic information is passed from one generation to the next.

In the past two decades, advances in forensic genetics have made it possible to perform paternity diagnoses involving solely the alleged father’s genetic information and that of his descendant when there is a high enough degree of biomathematical certainty in order to consider the results reliable. DNA technology becomes one of the forefront sciences in parallel with Nanotechnology.

The commercially grown cotton varieties used in production of textile products belong two different species, Gossypium barbadense, known as Egyptian cotton, and characterized by higher quality and price, and Gossypium hirsutum known as Upland or American cotton, and characterized by lower quality and price. Textile made from world-wide known Extra-Long & Long Staple Egyptian cotton varieties are of higher quality and price than those produced by Upland cotton. Thus, textiles produced from ELS Egyptian Cotton fibers are considered more valuable in the textile marketplace. In last time, there is no real method to indentify (differentiate) between the expensive cotton “Egyptian cotton” and cheap cotton “Upland cotton” in yarns, fabric, particularly, if the fabric made of blending the two cottons.

The aim of current research paper is to establish a DNA databases and technical methods which can be used at as powerful tools in the identification of Egyptian cotton and foreign cottons. The latter include many cotton species. Research output of the study would certainly guarantee protection of distinguished of Egyptian cotton, and reduces the counterfeits.

The study, indeed, address methods of isolating biological macromolecules particularly nucleic acids from mature cotton fibers. The cotton fibers are processed into yarns, woven or knitted to fabric or finished apparel, prior to the isolation of the biological macromolecules.

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A prospective for a New Leaf Grade by HVI

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Hazem Fouda1 and Mohamed Negm2

1Cotton Arbitration & Testing General Organization-CATGO, Alexandria- Egypt

2Cotton research institute, Giza-Egypt


Trash is a measure of the amount of non-lint materials in cotton, such


as leaf and bark from the cotton plant.The instruments work on two principles either gravimetric based i.e., Advanced Fiber Information System, “AFIS” or geometric or surface scanner, ” HVI”. The percentage of the surface area occupied by trash particles (percent area) and the number of trash visible (particle count) are calculated as well.

Trash area solely is not enough for determining leaf grade while a ratio between percent area of trash and trash particle count is a good indicator of the average particle size in a cotton sample. A low percent area combined with a high particle count indicates a smaller average particle size than does a high percent area with a low particle count.

The Aim of the work is: 1) to develop a formula contains both Trash Area and Trash Count measured by the HVI to be used for determining Leaf grade, 2) to develop a New Leaf Grade depending on the developed formula afore mentioned as the current Leaf Grade depends only on the HVI Trash Area reading which is obviously incorrect.

A high percent trash area with low count should result in better spinning mill processing while small trash area percent with high count (pepper trash) should result in bad spinning performance and high nep count in the yarn as they are difficult to remove from the cotton lint than large trash particles.

Leaf grade is a measure of the leaf content in cotton, this research has resulted in a new formula for a new leaf grade which includes both trash area percent and trash count which was in line with the classer’s grade giving samples with small trash particles lower grade than samples with big trash particles unlike the HVI current Leaf Grade.

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Comparison of HVI, AFIS and CCS Cotton Testing Method

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Mohamed A. Negm1 , Suzan H. Sanad1 and G. Kugler2 1Cotton Research Institute. Agric. Res. Center, Giza, Egypt. 2Textechno Herbert Stein- Mönchengladbach-Germany


Six Egyptian cotton varieties and two Upland cottons (Burkina Faso and Uzbekistan) based on a wide range of fiber properties i.e., fiber length, fiber strength, fiber elongation, short fiber content and micronaire reading measured by HVI, AFIS ” as High Volume Instrument” and new device Cotton Classification System (CCS-Textechno) “as Medium Volume Instrument” were analyzed and compared. The correlation among the three cotton testing methods was determined. The results indicated that both HVI, AFIS measurements were found to be comparable to the CCS except fiber elongation property.

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Effect of some spinning methods on spinning efficiency of egyptian cotton

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Nassar, M.A.A.1, M.A.M. Negm2, E.I. Ibrahim Abbas 1., M. I. El Bagoury3 and Eslam E.El –Sayed3

1Fac. Agric., Saba Basha, Alex. Univ., Egypt.

2Cotton Research Institute, Agric. Res. Center, Giza, Egypt

3 Cotton Arbitration and Testing General Organization


The main objective of the present investigation is to evaluate the spinning efficiency for different commercial cotton varieties in addition to a new promising of Egyptian cotton using two spinning systems i.e., ring and compact spinning. Two Egyptian cotton categories were tested in this study, ElS & LS categories. The first one is an Egyptian cotton genotypes named Giza 88, Giza 92 belong to the category of Extra-long staple varieties in addition to a new promising variety Giza 93 which also belong to the same category . The second is the long staple commercial genotypes named Giza 86 and new promising cross namely Giza 86X10229 (New cross). The Egyptian commercial cotton varieties and promising crosses were spun into two different spinning systems (compact and conventional ring spinning) and four different yarn counts (60’s, 80’s, 100’s, 120’s and 140’s on the same twist multiplier (4.2).

The results obtained that compact spinning system offers better utilization of fibers and increases the spinability of the Egyptian cotton. In addition, there is a high correlation between the spinning system and yarn count on its physical and mechanical properties.

The new promising cross Giza 93 recorded the highest values of Single yarn strength (g/tex), elongation (%), yarn evenness (C.V. %) and Lea Count Strength Product which gained by the compact spinning system at yarn count 80’S compared with the cotton variety Giza 88 at the same yarn count and spinning system. However, the highest imperfections yarn values (thin places, thick places and neps count /1000 m) were positively associated by the cotton variety Giza 88 which spun at the 140’S yarn count and the ring spinning system.

The second experiment indicated that the best yarn quality for strength (g/tex), elongation (%), yarn evenness (C.V. %) and Lea Count Strength Product were recorded by compact spinning system of the cotton new cross namely Giza 86X10229 when spun at 40’S yarn count. On the other hand, the lowest values of the same traits were possessed by the cotton variety Giza 86. Meanwhile, the cotton variety Giza 86 supposed the highest imperfections yarn values (thin places, thick places and neps count /1000 m) with ring spinning system and 100’S yarn count.

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