Determination of manganese content in cottonseed meal using near-infrared spectrometry and multivariate calibration

[Background] Manganese (Mn) is an essential microelement in cottonseeds, which is usually determined by the techniques relied on hazardous reagents and complex pretreatment procedures. Therefore a rapid, low-cost, and reagent-free analytical way is demanded to substitute the traditional analytical method.

[Results] The Mn content in cottonseed meal was investigated by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and chemometrics techniques. Standard normal variate (SNV) combined with first derivatives (FD) was the optimal spectra pre-treatment method. Monte Carlo uninformative variable elimination (MCUVE) and successive projections algorithm method (SPA) were employed to extract the informative variables from the full NIR spectra. The linear and nonlinear calibration models for cottonseed Mn content were developed. Finally, the optimal model for cottonseed Mn content was obtained by MCUVE-SPA-LSSVM, with root mean squares error of prediction (RMSEP) of 1.994 6, coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.949 3, and the residual predictive deviation (RPD) of 4.370 5, respectively.

[Conclusions] The MCUVE-SPA-LSSVM model is accuracy enough to measure the Mn content in cottonseed meal, which can be used as an alternative way to substitute for traditional analytical method.

 [Title] Determination of manganese content in cottonseed meal using near-infrared spectrometry and multivariate calibration

[Authors] En YU, Rubing ZHAO, Yunfei CAI, Jieqiong HUANG, Cheng LI, Cong LI, Lei MEI, Lisheng BAO, Jinhong CHEN & Shuijin ZHU

Journal of Cotton Research. 2019, 2: 12

Genome-wide identification of OSCA gene family and their potential function in the regulation of dehydration and salt stress in Gossypium hirsutum

[Background] Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) provides the largest natural fiber for the textile manufacturing industries, but its production is on the decline due to the effects of salinity. Soil salt-alkalization leads to damage in cotton growth and a decrease in yields. Hyperosmolality-gated calcium-permeable channels (OSCA) have been found to be involved in the detection of extracellular changes which trigger an increase in cytosolic free calcium concentration. Hyperosmolality-induced calcium ion increases have been widely speculated to be playing a role in osmosensing in plants. However, the molecular nature of the corresponding calcium ion channels remains unclearly. In this research work, we describe the OSCAgenes and their putative function in osmosensing in plants by carrying out genome-wide identification, characterization and functional analysis of the significantly up-regulated OSCA gene, GhOSCA1.1 through reverse genetics.

[Results] A total of 35, 21 and 22 OSCA genes were identified in G. hirsutum, G. arboreum, and G. raimondii genomes, respectively, and were classified into four different clades according to their gene structure and phylogenetic relationship. Gene and protein structure analysis indicated that 35 GhOSCA genes contained a conserved RSN1_7TM (PF02714) domain. Moreover, the cis-regulatory element analysis indicated that the OSCA genes were involved in response to abiotic stress. Furthermore, the knockdown of one of the highly up-regulated genes, Gh_OSCA1.1showed that the virus-induced gene silenced (VIGS) plants were highly sensitive to dehydration and salinity stresses compared with the none VIGS plants as evident with higher concentration levels of oxidant enzymes compared with the antioxidant enzymes on the leaves of the stressed plants.

[Conclusions] This study provides the first systematic analysis of the OSCA gene family and will be important for understanding the putative functions of the proteins encoded by the OSCA genes in cotton. These results provide a new insight of defense responses in general and lay the foundation for further investigation of the molecular role played by the OSCA genes, thereby providing suitable approaches to improve crop performance under salinity and drought stress conditions.

[Title] Genome-wide identification of OSCA gene family and their potential function in the regulation of dehydration and salt stress in Gossypium hirsutum 

[Authors] Xiu YANG, Yanchao XU, Fangfang YANG, Richard Odongo MAGWANGA, Xiaoyan CAI, Xingxing WANG, Yuhong WANG, Yuqing HOU, Kunbo WANG, Fang LIU & Zhongli ZHOU

Journal of Cotton Research. 2019; 2:11

Effects of mepiquat chloride on yield and main properties of cottonseed under different plant densities

[Background] Cottonseed oil and protein content as well as germination traits are major indicators of seed quality. However, the responses of these indicators to plant density and mepiquat chloride (MC) are still uncertain. To investigate plant density and MC effects on cottonseed yield and main quality parameters, we conducted a two-year field experiment including four plant densities (1.35, 2.55, 3.75 and 4.95 plants·m− 2) and two doses of MC (0 and 135 g·hm− 2) in Dafeng, Jiangsu Province, in 2013 and 2014.

[Results] The application of MC reduced plant height, fruit branch length and fruiting branch number under different plant densities, resulting in a lower and more compact plant canopy. Cottonseed yield showed a nonlinear increase as plant density increasing and achieved the highest value at 3.75 plants·m− 2, regardless of MC application. No significant interactions were found between plant density and MC for cottonseed yield and quality parameters. The 100-seed weight, cottonseed oil content and vigor index significantly decreased as plant density increased, while these parameters significantly increased with MC applying under different plant densities. Seed vigor index was positively correlated with 100-seed weight and seed oil content across different plant densities and MC treatments.

[Conclusions] Thus, application of MC could realize a win-win situation between cottonseed yield and main quality parameters under various densities; and plant density of 3.75 plants·m− 2combined with 135 g·hm− 2 of MC applying is optimal for high cottonseed yield and quality in this cotton production area.


[Title] Effects of mepiquat chloride on yield and main properties of cottonseed under different plant densities

[Authors] ZHAO Wenqing, YAN Qiang, YANG Hongkun, YANG Xiaoni, WANG Leran, CHEN Binglin, MENG Yali and ZHOU Zhiguo

Journal of Cotton Research. 2019; 2:10

Amino acids application enhances flowers insecticidal protein content in Bt cotton

[Background] Low insecticidal protein expression at reproductive organs affect insect resistance in Bt transgenic cotton. In order to enhance flower insecticidal protein expression, the conventional cultivar Sikang1 (S1) and the hybrid cultivar Sikang3 (S3) were used as experimental materials; the applications of selected 5 types of amino acids and 21 types of amino acids were sprayed on the flowers in 2016 and 2017 cotton growing seasons.

[Results] The flower Bt protein contents increased significantly under the two amino acid treatments in both cultivars, the Bt protein concentration increased by 15.2 to 25.8% compared with the control. However, no significant differences were detected between the two treatments of amino acid application. Increased amino acid and soluble protein contents, enhanced GPT, GOT, protease,and peptidase activities were observed under the amino acid application at the flowering stage.

[Conclusions] These results suggest that exterior application of the amino acids treatments could bolster the flower insecticidal protein expression.

[Authors] TAMBEL Leila. I. M., ZHOU Mingyuan, CHEN Yuan, ZHANG Xiang, CHEN Yuan  and CHEN Dehua

Journal of Cotton Research. 2019; 2:7

Feasibility assessment of phenotyping cotton fiber maturity using infrared spectroscopy and algorithms for genotyping analyses

[Background] Cotton fiber maturity is an important property that partially determines the processing and performance of cotton. Due to difficulties of obtaining fiber maturity values accurately from every plant of a genetic population, cotton geneticists often use micronaire (MIC) and/or lint percentage for classifying immature phenotypes from mature fiber phenotypes although they are complex fiber traits. The recent development of an algorithm for determining cotton fiber maturity (MIR) from Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra explores a novel way to measure fiber maturity efficiently and accurately. However, the algorithm has not been tested with a genetic population consisting of a large number of progeny plants.

[Results] The merits and limits of the MIC- or lint percentage-based phenotyping method were demonstrated by comparing the observed phenotypes with the predicted phenotypes based on their DNA marker genotypes in a genetic population consisting of 708 F2 plants with various fiber maturity. The observed MIC-based fiber phenotypes matched to the predicted phenotypes better than the observed lint percentage-based fiber phenotypes. The lint percentage was obtained from each of F2 plants, whereas the MIC values were unable to be obtained from the entire population since certain F2 plants produced insufficient fiber mass for their measurements. To test the feasibility of cotton fiber infrared maturity (MIR) as a viable phenotyping tool for genetic analyses, we measured FT-IR spectra from the second population composed of 80 F2 plants with various fiber maturities, determined MIR values using the algorithms, and compared them with their genotypes in addition to other fiber phenotypes. The results showed that MIR values were successfully obtained from each of the F2 plants, and the observed MIR-based phenotypes fit well to the predicted phenotypes based on their DNA marker genotypes as well as the observed phenotypes based on a combination of MIC and lint percentage.

[Conclusions] The MIR value obtained from FT-IR spectra of cotton fibers is able to accurately assess fiber maturity of all plants of a population in a quantitative way. The technique provides an option for cotton geneticists to determine fiber maturity rapidly and efficiently.

[Authors] KIM Hee Jin, LIU Yongliang, FANG David D. and DELHOM Christopher D.

Journal of Cotton Research2019; 2:8

Genetic effects conferring heat tolerance in upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)

[Background] Climate change and particularly global warming has emerged as an alarming threat to the crop productivity of field crops and exerted drastic effects on the cropping patterns. Production of cotton has been dropped down to one million bales from 1.4 million bales since 2015 in Pakistan due to the increase in temperature at critical growth stages, i.e., flowering and boll formation. Keeping in view the importance of cotton in the country, this study was conducted to investigate the genetic effects conferring heat tolerance in six populations (P1, P2, F1, F2, BC1 and BC2) developed from cross-1 and cross-2, i.e., VH-282 × FH-142 and DNH-40 × VH-259.

[Results] The results revealed that cross-1 performed better in heat stress as compared with cross-2 for majority of the traits recorded. Boll weight and ginning outturn (GOT) were highly effected under heat stress and had negative correlation with Relative cell injury (RCI). Boll weight, fiber length, fiber strength and fiber fineness were under the control of non-additive gene action, whereas RCI was controlled by additive gene effects. Lower values of genetic advance coupled with higher values of broad sense heritability for these traits except RCI confirmed the role of non-additive genetic effects. Duplicate types of epistasis were recorded for fiber strength in cross-1 in normal condition. However, complementary type of non-allelic interaction was recorded for fiber strength under normal condition, fiber fineness and RCI under heat stressed condition in cross-1. Likewise, boll weight, GOT and fiber length in populations derived from cross-2 in normal condition were also under the influence of complementary type of non-allelic interaction. Significant differences among values of mid parent and better parent heterosis for boll weight in both normal and heat stress condition provided the opportunity to cotton breeders for utilization of this germplasm for improvement of this trait through exploitation of heterosis breeding.

[Conclusion] Cross-1 performed better in heat stress and could be utilized for development of heat tolerant cultivar. RCI was under the influence of additive gene action, so one can rely on this trait for screening of large number of accessions of cotton for heat stress. While other traits were predominantly controlled by non-additive gene action and selection based on these should be delayed in later generations.


[Authors] SALMAN Muhammad, ZIA Zia Ullah, RANA Iqrar Ahmad, MAQSOOD Rana Haroon, AHMAD Saghir, BAKHSH Ali, AZHAR Muhammad Tehseen

Journal of Cotton Research. 2019; 2: 9

JCR-Role of SNPs in determining QTLs for major traits in cotton

Abstract: A single nucleotide polymorphism is the simplest form of genetic variation among individuals and can induce minor changes in phenotypic, physiological and biochemical characteristics. This polymorphism induces various mutations that alter the sequence of a gene which can lead to observed changes in amino acids. Several assays have been developed for identification and validation of these markers. Each method has its own advantages and disadvantages but genotyping by sequencing is the most common and most widely used assay. These markers are also associated with several desirable traits like yield, fibre quality, boll size and genes respond to biotic and abiotic stresses in cotton. Changes in yield related traits are of interest to plant breeders. Numerous quantitative trait loci with novel functions have been identified in cotton by using these markers. This information can be used for crop improvement through molecular breeding approaches. In this review, we discuss the identification of these markers and their effects on gene function of economically important traits in cotton.

Keywords: Abiotic stresses, Biotic stresses, Cotton, Earliness, Genotyping by sequencing


Role of SNPs in determining QTLs for major traits in cotton

MAJEED Sajid, RANA Iqrar Ahmad, ATIF Rana Muhammad, ALI Zulfiqar, HINZE Lori  and AZHAR Muhammad Tehseen

Journal of Cotton Research. 2019; 2:5

Effects of NaCl stress on the biochemical substances in Bt cotton as well as on the growth and development and adult oviposition selectivity of Helicoverpa armigera


Recently, due to the development of food security strategies, cotton has been planted in inland saline-alkali dry soils or in coastal some saline-alkali soils in China. Under the condition, to comprehensively prevent and control Helicoverpa armigera in cotton fields with saline-alkali soils, it is important to study the larval growth and development of H. armigera and to study adult oviposition selectivity in H. armigera adults that feed on NaCl-stressed cotton plants.


In this study, Bt cotton GK19 was used for the experimental group and its nontransgenic parent Simian 3 was used for the control to study the effects of biochemical substances in cotton as well as larval growth and development and adult oviposition selectivity of H. armigera. The experiments were performed by growing cotton indoors under NaCl stress at concentrations of 0 mmol·L− 1, 75 mmol·L− 1 and 150 mmol·L− 1, respectively. The results showed that the expression of Bt protein was significantly inhibited for NaCl-stressed Bt cotton. The content of soluble protein and K+ in the leaves of cotton were decreased, while the content of gossypol and Na+ were increased. In addition, the 5th instar H. armigera larvae exhibited shorten the life span in a 13-day trial period. Under enclosure treatments and at different female densities, the adult oviposition of H. armigera decreased on high NaCl-stressed nontransgenic cotton, while the oviposition on Bt cotton tended to first increase but then decrease under low, moderate and high NaCl stress treatments.


Under certain content ranges of NaCl stress treatments, larval of H. armigera growth and development, and adult oviposition were no significant difference in the change for a certain period. However, under high NaCl stress, larval growth, development and adult oviposition were affected, which may provide insights for the prevention and control of H. armigera for Bt cotton in saline-alkali soils.


Effects of NaCl stress on the biochemical substances in Bt cotton as well as on the growth and development and adult oviposition selectivity of Helicoverpa armigera

LUO Junyu, ZHANG Shuai, ZHU Xiangzhen, JI Jichao, ZHANG Kaixin, WANG Chunyi, ZHANG Lijuan, WANG Li and CUI Jiniie

Journal of Cotton Research. 2019; 2:4

JCR-Genome-wide identification of Gossypium INDETERMINATE DOMAIN genes and their expression profiles in ovule development and abiotic stress responses


INDETERMINATE DOMAIN (IDD) transcription factors form one of the largest and most conserved gene families in plant kingdom and play important roles in various processes of plant growth and development, such as flower induction in term of flowering control. Till date, systematic and functional analysis of IDDgenes remained infancy in cotton.


In this study, we identified total of 162 IDD genes from eight different plant species including 65 IDD genes in Gossypium hirsutum. Phylogenetic analysis divided IDDs genes into seven well distinct groups. The gene structures and conserved motifs of GhIDD genes depicted highly conserved exon-intron and protein motif distribution patterns. Gene duplication analysis revealed that among 142 orthologous gene pairs, 54 pairs have been derived by segmental duplication events and four pairs by tandem duplication events. Further, Ka/Ksvalues of most of orthologous/paralogous gene pairs were less than one suggested the purifying selection pressure during evolution. Spatiotemporal expression pattern by qRT-PCR revealed that most of the investigated GhIDD genes showed higher transcript levels in ovule of seven days post anthesis, and upregulated response under the treatments of multiple abiotic stresses.


Evolutionary analysis revealed that IDD gene family was highly conserved in plant during the rapid phase of evolution. Whole genome duplication, segmental as well as tandem duplication significantly contributed to the expansion of IDDgene family in upland cotton. Some distinct genes evolved into special subfamily and indicated potential role in the allotetraploidy Gossypium hisutum evolution and development. High transcript levels of GhIDD genes in ovules illustrated their potential roles in seed and fiber development. Further, upregulated responses of GhIDD genes under the treatments of various abiotic stresses suggested them as important genetic regulators to improve stress resistance in cotton breeding.

Genome-wide identification of Gossypium INDETERMINATE DOMAIN genes and their expression profiles in ovule development and abiotic stress responses

ALI Faiza, QANMBER Ghulam, LI Yonghui, MA Shuya, LU Lili, YANG Zuoren, WANG Zhi and LI Fuguang

Journal of Cotton Research 2019 2:3

Isolation and characterization of the GbVIP1gene and response to Verticillium wilt in cotton and tobacco

Isolation and characterization of the GbVIP1gene and response to Verticillium wilt in cotton and tobacco

  • ZHANG Kai ,
  • ZHAO Pei ,
  • WANG Hongmei Email author,
  • ZHAO Yunlei ,
  • CHEN Wei ,
  • GONG Haiyan ,
  • SANG Xiaohui  and
  • CUI Yanli 
Contributed equally
Journal of Cotton Research20192:2



Verticillium wilt is a serious soil-borne vascular disease that causes major losses to upland cotton (Gossypium hirutum L.) worldwidely every year. The protein VIP1 (VirE2 interaction protein 1), a bZIP transcription factor, is involved in plant response to many stress conditions, especially pathogenic bacteria. However, its roles in cotton response to Verticillium wilt are poorly understood.


The GbVIP1 gene was cloned from resistant sea-island cotton (G. barbadense) cv. Hai 7124. Expression of GbVIP1 was up-regulated by inoculation with Verticillium dahliae and exogenous treatment with ethylene. Results of virus-induced gene silencing suggested that silencing of GbVIP1 weakened cotton resistance to Verticillium wilt. The heterologous expression of GbVIP1 in tobacco showed enhanced resistance to Verticillium wilt. The PR1, PR1-like and HSP70 genes were up-regulated in GbVIP1 transgenic tobacco after Verticillium wilt infection.


Our results suggested that GbVIP1 increased plant resistance to Verticillium wilt through up-regulating expressions of PR1, PR1-like, and HSP70. These results provide new approaches to improving resistance to Verticillium wilt in upland cotton and also have great potential for disease-resistance breeding of cotton.


  • Cotton
  • VIP1
  • Verticillium wilt