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[Background] Manganese (Mn) is an essential microelement in cottonseeds, which is usually determined by the techniques relied on hazardous reagents and complex pretreatment procedures. Therefore a rapid, low-cost, and reagent-free analytical way is demanded to substitute the traditional analytical method.
[Results] The Mn content in cottonseed meal was investigated by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and chemometrics techniques. Standard normal variate (SNV) combined with first derivatives (FD) was the optimal spectra pre-treatment method. Monte Carlo uninformative variable elimination (MCUVE) and successive projections algorithm method (SPA) were employed to extract the informative variables from the full NIR spectra. The linear and nonlinear calibration models for cottonseed Mn content were developed. Finally, the optimal model for cottonseed Mn content was obtained by MCUVE-SPA-LSSVM, with root mean squares error of prediction (RMSEP) of 1.994 6, coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.949 3, and the residual predictive deviation (RPD) of 4.370 5, respectively.
[Conclusions] The MCUVE-SPA-LSSVM model is accuracy enough to measure the Mn content in cottonseed meal, which can be used as an alternative way to substitute for traditional analytical method.
[Title] Determination of manganese content in cottonseed meal using near-infrared spectrometry and multivariate calibration
[Authors] En YU, Rubing ZHAO, Yunfei CAI, Jieqiong HUANG, Cheng LI, Cong LI, Lei MEI, Lisheng BAO, Jinhong CHEN & Shuijin ZHU
Journal of Cotton Research. 2019, 2: 12
[Background] Cottonseed oil and protein content as well as germination traits are major indicators of seed quality. However, the responses of these indicators to plant density and mepiquat chloride (MC) are still uncertain. To investigate plant density and MC effects on cottonseed yield and main quality parameters, we conducted a two-year field experiment including four plant densities (1.35, 2.55, 3.75 and 4.95 plants·m− 2) and two doses of MC (0 and 135 g·hm− 2) in Dafeng, Jiangsu Province, in 2013 and 2014.
[Results] The application of MC reduced plant height, fruit branch length and fruiting branch number under different plant densities, resulting in a lower and more compact plant canopy. Cottonseed yield showed a nonlinear increase as plant density increasing and achieved the highest value at 3.75 plants·m− 2, regardless of MC application. No significant interactions were found between plant density and MC for cottonseed yield and quality parameters. The 100-seed weight, cottonseed oil content and vigor index significantly decreased as plant density increased, while these parameters significantly increased with MC applying under different plant densities. Seed vigor index was positively correlated with 100-seed weight and seed oil content across different plant densities and MC treatments.
[Conclusions] Thus, application of MC could realize a win-win situation between cottonseed yield and main quality parameters under various densities; and plant density of 3.75 plants·m− 2combined with 135 g·hm− 2 of MC applying is optimal for high cottonseed yield and quality in this cotton production area.
[Title] Effects of mepiquat chloride on yield and main properties of cottonseed under different plant densities
[Authors] ZHAO Wenqing, YAN Qiang, YANG Hongkun, YANG Xiaoni, WANG Leran, CHEN Binglin, MENG Yali and ZHOU Zhiguo
Journal of Cotton Research. 2019; 2:10
[Background] Low insecticidal protein expression at reproductive organs affect insect resistance in Bt transgenic cotton. In order to enhance flower insecticidal protein expression, the conventional cultivar Sikang1 (S1) and the hybrid cultivar Sikang3 (S3) were used as experimental materials; the applications of selected 5 types of amino acids and 21 types of amino acids were sprayed on the flowers in 2016 and 2017 cotton growing seasons.
[Results] The flower Bt protein contents increased significantly under the two amino acid treatments in both cultivars, the Bt protein concentration increased by 15.2 to 25.8% compared with the control. However, no significant differences were detected between the two treatments of amino acid application. Increased amino acid and soluble protein contents, enhanced GPT, GOT, protease,and peptidase activities were observed under the amino acid application at the flowering stage.
[Conclusions] These results suggest that exterior application of the amino acids treatments could bolster the flower insecticidal protein expression.
[Authors] TAMBEL Leila. I. M., ZHOU Mingyuan, CHEN Yuan, ZHANG Xiang, CHEN Yuan and CHEN Dehua
[Background] Climate change and particularly global warming has emerged as an alarming threat to the crop productivity of field crops and exerted drastic effects on the cropping patterns. Production of cotton has been dropped down to one million bales from 1.4 million bales since 2015 in Pakistan due to the increase in temperature at critical growth stages, i.e., flowering and boll formation. Keeping in view the importance of cotton in the country, this study was conducted to investigate the genetic effects conferring heat tolerance in six populations (P1, P2, F1, F2, BC1 and BC2) developed from cross-1 and cross-2, i.e., VH-282 × FH-142 and DNH-40 × VH-259.
[Results] The results revealed that cross-1 performed better in heat stress as compared with cross-2 for majority of the traits recorded. Boll weight and ginning outturn (GOT) were highly effected under heat stress and had negative correlation with Relative cell injury (RCI). Boll weight, fiber length, fiber strength and fiber fineness were under the control of non-additive gene action, whereas RCI was controlled by additive gene effects. Lower values of genetic advance coupled with higher values of broad sense heritability for these traits except RCI confirmed the role of non-additive genetic effects. Duplicate types of epistasis were recorded for fiber strength in cross-1 in normal condition. However, complementary type of non-allelic interaction was recorded for fiber strength under normal condition, fiber fineness and RCI under heat stressed condition in cross-1. Likewise, boll weight, GOT and fiber length in populations derived from cross-2 in normal condition were also under the influence of complementary type of non-allelic interaction. Significant differences among values of mid parent and better parent heterosis for boll weight in both normal and heat stress condition provided the opportunity to cotton breeders for utilization of this germplasm for improvement of this trait through exploitation of heterosis breeding.
[Conclusion] Cross-1 performed better in heat stress and could be utilized for development of heat tolerant cultivar. RCI was under the influence of additive gene action, so one can rely on this trait for screening of large number of accessions of cotton for heat stress. While other traits were predominantly controlled by non-additive gene action and selection based on these should be delayed in later generations.
[Authors] SALMAN Muhammad, ZIA Zia Ullah, RANA Iqrar Ahmad, MAQSOOD Rana Haroon, AHMAD Saghir, BAKHSH Ali, AZHAR Muhammad Tehseen
Journal of Cotton Research. 2019; 2: 9
Background: In order to achieve the targets aiming at the improvement of protein quality, knowledge regarding seed protein fractions and polypeptides constituting them in different crops is essential. Besides having high nutritional value as animal feed and human food, the protein isolates from cottonseed meal have also been proven promising as industrial raw materials for a number of applications. As far as Indian work on the characterization of cotton seed proteins is concerned, relatively meagre reports are available. Keeping in mind the importance of cotton seed proteins, lines belonging to Gossypium arboreum L. (Indian cotton) and G. hirsutum L. (American cotton) which are grown in all the major cotton growing states in India were selected for analysing their seed protein characteristics.
Results: Whereas G. arboreum (A-genome) lines revealed a lower range of seed protein content i.e. 19.5~24.3%, an upper range (21.8~29.5%) could be observed in lines of G. hirsutum (AD-genome). Globulins represented dominating fraction in both species followed by albumins, glutelins and prolamins. A significant positive correlation between albumins/globulins and seed protein content in G. arboreum /G. hirsutum, respectively, was observed. Intraspecific electrophoretic variation in seed protein extracts was observed in the region of molecular weight 22 kDa – 27 kDa in lines of both the species; however some lines with A-genome showed similarity in banding pattern with AD-genome. Four polypeptides with disulphide-linkages were also reported for the first time. Albumins were observed to reveal more variations in their electrophoretic pattern between the lines of two species followed by globulins.
Conclusion: On the basis of present and previous studies, screening the lines with low or high protein content will lead the selection of lines with superior polypeptide fraction important for nutritional and industrial purposes. On comparing the composition and behaviour of four 2-S linked polypeptides with other plant groups, these were suggested to be legumin-like in nature. The similarity in banding patterns between the lines of A-genome and AD-genome species marked towards the close evolutionary relationship between these two. Albumin fractions on the basis of our results could be taken for cultivar differentiation in cotton crop.
Gossypium, SDS-PAGE, Seed proteins, Globulins
[Authors] SINGH Arvinder, KAUR Amanjot
Hamdullah Korhan1, Lale Efe2, Yuksel Bolek3 and Mustafa Kusek4
1Kahramanmaras Sutcu ımam university, graduate school of natural and applied sciences, Kahramanmaras, Turkey
2Kahramanmaras Sutcu Imam University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of
Field Crops, Kahramanmaras, Turkey,
3Kahramanmaras Sutcu Imam University Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Agricultural Biotechnology, Kahramanmaras, Turkey
4Kahramanmaras Sutcu Imam University Faculty of Agriculture, Department of
Plant Protection, Kahramanmaras, Turkey
Verticillium wilt of cotton is a destructive disease that causes considerable yield losses on the crop. There is no effective method for controlling Verticillium wilt of cotton that is one of the world’s most devastating diseases except breeding resistant varieties. Due to environmental concerns of chemicals used in the control of this disease in which using antagonistic bacteria as a biocontrol agent to suppress the disease is very important. In addition, bacteria converting phosphorus to a form that is useful for the plant can offer an advantage for plant growth and disease resistance. Isolation the bacteria from the soil and use as plant growth regulation are the focus of some research has been going on.
Starting by 2014, this study will continue for 3 years. Starting, soil samples were collected at different vegetative periods of plant from 25 diﬀerent cotton producing areas (from July to September) and pure strain cultivars were obtained from 650 soil samples. Tests applied to these strains are Hypersensitive Reaction on Tobacco, Levan Formation, Oxidase, Hydrogen Peroxide And Potassium Hydroxide. Resulting of identification tests, isolates that doesn’t have pathogenicity were tested for the ability to convert the phosphorus obtainable for by the plants, resulting of identification tests, isolates that doesn’t have pathogenicity will be used to antimicrobial activity in both greenhouse and in the field trials.
muhammad iqbal*, Sami Ul-Allah
Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, UCA&ES, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur-PAKISTAN
Cotton (G. hirsutum) is a crop of tropical and subtropical regions but despite of this, it is highly sensitive to heat stress. Heat stress during flowering and boll growth period cause shedding of flowers and bolls which cause a significant loss in yield. There is only a little information is available which describes the effect of high temperature on development of fruiting parts in cotton. Therefore an experiment was conducted to assess the effect of heat stress on development of reproductive parts. A two year experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design with four replications and three factors during 2013-15. The factors included four sowing dates (1 April, 1 May, 30 May and 30 June) and three cotton cultivars (IUB-222, IUB-13 and IUB-63). Flowering in early sowing (1 April and 1 May) initiated during high temperatures of June and July and these are taken as heat stressed whereas flowering in late sown (30 May and 30 June) initiated during optimum temperatures of august and September and these were taken as non-stressed. Data was collected for daily mean temperature, days taken to initiation of square development, days taken from square to flower, days taken from flower to boll open, boll retention, boll size, seed weight, seed volume, seed density and seed surface area. The analysis of variance revealed that significant (P≥0.05) genotypic and sowing date diﬀerences existed for all studied traits and genotype × sowing date interaction was also significant (P≥0.05). The results revealed that heat stress decreased the days taken for initiation of square development, days taken from square to flower and flower to boll open, boll retention, and boll size. Due to reduction in boll retention and boll size there was reduction in the yield. All seed traits seed weight, seed volume, seed density and seed surface area reduced with heat Correlation analysis revealed that mean daily temperature had significant (P≥0.05) negative correlation with all the traits studied. The genotype IUB-63 performed best and was least affected by the heat stress, so proved as heat tolerant genotype. It is conclude from the results that fruit development traits and seed physical traits can be an effective selection criteria for heat stress breeding.
Reaz Sokouti Oskoee1*, Farshid Talat 2
1 Associate Professor, Director of West Azerbaijan Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Center, Urmia, Iran.
2 Assistant Professor, Cotton Biotechnologist, West Azerbaijan Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Center, Urmia, Iran
Main target of this study was to classify land suitability for efficient use of agricultural land and achieve sustainable cotton production using Geographic Information System. The study carried out based on interpretation of aerial photographs with geological, topographical and land use maps. Soil map of the region were prepared using Geopedologic method. After preparing the soil map as a base map, land suitability classification for cotton determined using simple and parametric limitation method. Climate and soil requirements tables for cotton were been set. Results of the soil study indicated that the soils categories were Entisols and Inceptisols in the region. The study area was divided in 7 landforms. Soil horizons characteristic of profiles includes Ocric, calcic and cambic. Calculations showed that growth period is 170 days from 5th May till 25th October. The precipitation period is 90 days. The results also showed that the economic production of cotton is not possible in the whole area. On the other hand, due to unfavorable weather conditions, if land limitations be improved, a limited part of the study area will be relatively suitable for cotton. So the final class of climate limitation for cotton due to the temperature factor in the flowering and also relative humidity maturation stage will be class S2. Limitations of the topography factor that is exclusively distributed in the hilly areas can be seen in the small parts. Because of the soil texture and access to water and thus the possibility of further leaching of salts, the possibility of the cotton cultivation will be high.
Dil Baugh Muhammad*, Muhammad Naveed Afzal*, Muhammad Tariq* and Zahid Iqbal Anjum**
*Agronomy Section, Central Cotton Research Institute, Multan, Pakistan
** Cytogenetic Section, Central Cotton Research Institute, Multan, Pakistan
The transgenic cotton cultivars require higher potassium and its deficiency during peak bloom and boll setting period adversely affects the yield potential. The two years field experiments were conducted at Central Cotton Research Institute, Multan to investigate the potassium requirement of transgenic cotton. In experiment-I, three potassium doses
i.e. 0, 100 and 200 kg K2O ha-1 were applied at sowing and splitted into
two equal splits of 100 at pre-plant and 45 DAS and four equal splits of 200 at pre-plant, 30, 45 and 60 DAS were tested. While in experiment-II, the impact of four foliar sprays of 2% K2O was evaluated in combination with pre-plant application of 0, 100 and 200 K2O ha-1 for seed cotton yield and yield components. The results revealed that all the potassium levels produced higher seed cotton yield and plant biomass over control. However, split application of potassium irrespective of potassium level was most promising over full pre-plant application for plant height, total fruit production, no. of bolls, boll weight, seed cotton yield and plant biomass. Furthermore, it was also observed that pre-plant application of 200 kg K2O ha-1 along with four foliar sprays of 2% K2O produced the highest figures for plant structure, yield components and seed cotton yield over 0 and 100 kg K2O ha-1. Therefore, it is recommended that cotton must be fertilized with four splits of 200 kg ha-1 over pre-plant application and four foliar sprays of 2% K2O can further increase the profit margin from pre-plant potassium application.