Soil replacement combined with subsoiling improves cotton yields

[Background] Long-term rotary tillage has led to the deterioration of cotton production in northern China. This deterioration is due to the disturbance of topsoil, a dense plough pan at the 20–50 cm depth, and the decreased water storage capacity. A 2-yr field experiment was performed from 2014 to 2015 to explore a feasible soil tillage approach to halting the deterioration. The experiment consisted of four treatments: replacing the topsoil from the 0–15 cm layer with the subsoil from the 15–30 cm layer (T1); replacing the topsoil from the 0–20 cm layer with the subsoil from the 20–40 cm layer and subsoiling at the 40–55 cm layer (T2); replacing the topsoil from the 0–20 cm layer with the subsoil from the 20–40 cm layer and subsoiling at the 40–70 cm layer (T3); and conventional surface rotary tillage within 15 cm as the control (CK).

[Results] The results indicated that the soil bulk densities at the 20–40 cm layer in T2 were 0.13 g·cm− 3and 0.15 g·cm− 3 lower than those obtained from CK in 2014 and 2015, respectively. The total nitrogen (N) and the available phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) contents from the 20–40 cm layer in T2 and T3 were significantly higher than those in CK and T1. The amount of soil water stored in the 0–40 cm layer of T2 at the squaring stage of cotton was 15.3 mm and 13.4 mm greater than that in CK in 2014 and 2015, respectively, when the weather was dry. Compared with CK, T2 increased cotton lint yield by 6.1 and 10.2 percentage points in 2014 and 2015, respectively, which was due to the improved roots within the 20–60 cm layer, the greater number of bolls per plant and the higher boll weight in the T2 treatment.

[Conclusions] The results suggested that soil replacement plus subsoiling would be a good alternative to current practices in order to break through the bottleneck constraining cotton production in northern China. Replacing the topsoil in the 0–20 cm layer with the soil from the 20–40 cm layer plus subsoiling at the 40–55 cm layer would be the most effective method.

[Title] Soil replacement combined with subsoiling improves cotton yields

[Authors] LI Pengcheng, WANG Shulin, QI Hong, WANG Yan, ZHANG Qian, FENG Guoyi, ZHENG Cangsong, YU Xueke, LIN Yongzeng & DONG Helin

Journal of Cotton Research2019; 2:25

https://doi.org/10.1186/s42397-019-0038-x

https://jcottonres.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s42397-019-0038-x

Comparative effects of crop residue incorporation and inorganic potassium fertilization on soil C and N characteristics and microbial activities in cotton field

[Background] Crop residue incorporation into the soil is an effective method to augment soil potassium (K) content, and effects of crop residue and K fertilizer on soil K balance have been compared. However, their influences on other soil characteristics such as carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) characteristics and microbial activities have not been quantified. To address this, field experiments were conducted in 2011 at Dafeng (sandy loam) and Nanjing (clay loam) in China with treatments including blank control without crop residue incorporation and K fertilizer application, 0.9 t·ha− 1 wheat straw incorporation (W1C0), 0.7 t·ha− 1 cotton residue incorporation (W0C1), 0.9 t·ha− 1 wheat straw + 0.7 t·ha− 1 cotton residue incorporation (W1C1) and two K fertilizer rates (150 and 300 kg·ha− 1 (K2O)) during the cotton season.

[Results] Compared with control, K fertilizer treatments did not alter soil water-soluble organic carbon/soil organic carbon (WSOC/SOC) ratio, microbial biomass carbon (MBC)/SOC ratio, MBC/microbial biomass nitrogen (MBN) ratio, water inorganic nitrogen/total nitrogen ratio (WIN/TN), the number of cellulose-decomposing bacteria, or related enzymes activities, however, W0C1, W1C0 and W1C1 treatments significantly increased WSOC/SOC ratio, MBC/SOC ratio and MBC/ MBN ratio, and decreased WIN/TN ratio at both sites. W0C1, W1C0 and W1C1 treatments also increased the number of soil cellulose-decomposing bacteria and activities of cellulase, β-glucosidase and arylamidase. Regarding different crop residue treatments, W1C0 and W1C1 treatments had more significant influences on above mentioned parameters than W0C1 treatment. Moreover, MBC/MBN ratio was the most important factor to result in the differences in the number of cellulose-decomposing bacteria and soil enzymes activities among different treatments.

[Conclusions] This study provided a detailed phenotypic diversity description of a population representing a wide range of upland cotton germplasm. Our findings provide useful information about possible elite fibre quality parents for cotton breeding programs.

[Title] Evaluation of the genetic diversity of fibre quality traits in upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) inferred from phenotypic variations

[Authors] HU Wei, SUI Ning , YU Chaoran, YANG Changqin, LIU Ruixian and ZHOU Zhiguo

Journal of Cotton Research2019; 2:24

https://doi.org/10.1186/s42397-019-0040-3

https://jcottonres.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s42397-019-0040-3

Antioxidant and Physiological Responses of Upland Cotton Accessions Grown Under High-Temperature Regimes

Increased temperature caused by climate change is exerting negative impacts on productivity of cotton crop. Therefore, breeding cultivars tolerant of high temperature are need of the time. Realizing the situation, 154 accessions of upland cotton were sown under alpha lattice design in three replications in two sowing dates. The first sowing date was planned to coincide the flowering stage with maximum annual temperature (± 48 °C) of the region. The data were recorded at appearance of first flower for physiological traits like viability of pollen grains and cell membrane thermostability. Enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants, i.e., peroxidase activity and proline contents were also quantified along with hydrogen peroxide. K-means cluster and biplot analysis revealed the differential response of genotypes. FH-Lalzar, IUB-13, GH-Mubarak and Shahkar exhibited higher values for antioxidants and physiological traits. The yield and fibre quality of these genotypes were also superior as compared to others. It was suggested that diversity in germplasm for aforementioned traits can be utilized in further breeding programs.

  • Sajid Majeed, Tanwir Ahmad Malik, Iqrar Ahmad Rana, Muhammad Tehseen   AzharEmail author

Iranian Journal of Science and Technology, Transactions A: Science

https://doi.org/10.1007/s40995-019-00781-7.

Abstracts of “3rd Sino-Pak ICICBB” Changji, China 4-9 September 2019

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Determination of manganese content in cottonseed meal using near-infrared spectrometry and multivariate calibration

[Background] Manganese (Mn) is an essential microelement in cottonseeds, which is usually determined by the techniques relied on hazardous reagents and complex pretreatment procedures. Therefore a rapid, low-cost, and reagent-free analytical way is demanded to substitute the traditional analytical method.

[Results] The Mn content in cottonseed meal was investigated by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and chemometrics techniques. Standard normal variate (SNV) combined with first derivatives (FD) was the optimal spectra pre-treatment method. Monte Carlo uninformative variable elimination (MCUVE) and successive projections algorithm method (SPA) were employed to extract the informative variables from the full NIR spectra. The linear and nonlinear calibration models for cottonseed Mn content were developed. Finally, the optimal model for cottonseed Mn content was obtained by MCUVE-SPA-LSSVM, with root mean squares error of prediction (RMSEP) of 1.994 6, coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.949 3, and the residual predictive deviation (RPD) of 4.370 5, respectively.

[Conclusions] The MCUVE-SPA-LSSVM model is accuracy enough to measure the Mn content in cottonseed meal, which can be used as an alternative way to substitute for traditional analytical method.

 [Title] Determination of manganese content in cottonseed meal using near-infrared spectrometry and multivariate calibration

[Authors] En YU, Rubing ZHAO, Yunfei CAI, Jieqiong HUANG, Cheng LI, Cong LI, Lei MEI, Lisheng BAO, Jinhong CHEN & Shuijin ZHU

Journal of Cotton Research. 2019, 2: 12

https://doi.org/10.1186/s42397-019-0030-5

Effects of mepiquat chloride on yield and main properties of cottonseed under different plant densities

[Background] Cottonseed oil and protein content as well as germination traits are major indicators of seed quality. However, the responses of these indicators to plant density and mepiquat chloride (MC) are still uncertain. To investigate plant density and MC effects on cottonseed yield and main quality parameters, we conducted a two-year field experiment including four plant densities (1.35, 2.55, 3.75 and 4.95 plants·m− 2) and two doses of MC (0 and 135 g·hm− 2) in Dafeng, Jiangsu Province, in 2013 and 2014.

[Results] The application of MC reduced plant height, fruit branch length and fruiting branch number under different plant densities, resulting in a lower and more compact plant canopy. Cottonseed yield showed a nonlinear increase as plant density increasing and achieved the highest value at 3.75 plants·m− 2, regardless of MC application. No significant interactions were found between plant density and MC for cottonseed yield and quality parameters. The 100-seed weight, cottonseed oil content and vigor index significantly decreased as plant density increased, while these parameters significantly increased with MC applying under different plant densities. Seed vigor index was positively correlated with 100-seed weight and seed oil content across different plant densities and MC treatments.

[Conclusions] Thus, application of MC could realize a win-win situation between cottonseed yield and main quality parameters under various densities; and plant density of 3.75 plants·m− 2combined with 135 g·hm− 2 of MC applying is optimal for high cottonseed yield and quality in this cotton production area.

 

[Title] Effects of mepiquat chloride on yield and main properties of cottonseed under different plant densities

[Authors] ZHAO Wenqing, YAN Qiang, YANG Hongkun, YANG Xiaoni, WANG Leran, CHEN Binglin, MENG Yali and ZHOU Zhiguo

Journal of Cotton Research. 2019; 2:10

https://doi.org/10.1186/s42397-019-0026-1

Amino acids application enhances flowers insecticidal protein content in Bt cotton

[Background] Low insecticidal protein expression at reproductive organs affect insect resistance in Bt transgenic cotton. In order to enhance flower insecticidal protein expression, the conventional cultivar Sikang1 (S1) and the hybrid cultivar Sikang3 (S3) were used as experimental materials; the applications of selected 5 types of amino acids and 21 types of amino acids were sprayed on the flowers in 2016 and 2017 cotton growing seasons.

[Results] The flower Bt protein contents increased significantly under the two amino acid treatments in both cultivars, the Bt protein concentration increased by 15.2 to 25.8% compared with the control. However, no significant differences were detected between the two treatments of amino acid application. Increased amino acid and soluble protein contents, enhanced GPT, GOT, protease,and peptidase activities were observed under the amino acid application at the flowering stage.

[Conclusions] These results suggest that exterior application of the amino acids treatments could bolster the flower insecticidal protein expression.

[Authors] TAMBEL Leila. I. M., ZHOU Mingyuan, CHEN Yuan, ZHANG Xiang, CHEN Yuan  and CHEN Dehua

Journal of Cotton Research. 2019; 2:7
https://doi.org/10.1186/s42397-019-0023-4

Genetic effects conferring heat tolerance in upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)

[Background] Climate change and particularly global warming has emerged as an alarming threat to the crop productivity of field crops and exerted drastic effects on the cropping patterns. Production of cotton has been dropped down to one million bales from 1.4 million bales since 2015 in Pakistan due to the increase in temperature at critical growth stages, i.e., flowering and boll formation. Keeping in view the importance of cotton in the country, this study was conducted to investigate the genetic effects conferring heat tolerance in six populations (P1, P2, F1, F2, BC1 and BC2) developed from cross-1 and cross-2, i.e., VH-282 × FH-142 and DNH-40 × VH-259.

[Results] The results revealed that cross-1 performed better in heat stress as compared with cross-2 for majority of the traits recorded. Boll weight and ginning outturn (GOT) were highly effected under heat stress and had negative correlation with Relative cell injury (RCI). Boll weight, fiber length, fiber strength and fiber fineness were under the control of non-additive gene action, whereas RCI was controlled by additive gene effects. Lower values of genetic advance coupled with higher values of broad sense heritability for these traits except RCI confirmed the role of non-additive genetic effects. Duplicate types of epistasis were recorded for fiber strength in cross-1 in normal condition. However, complementary type of non-allelic interaction was recorded for fiber strength under normal condition, fiber fineness and RCI under heat stressed condition in cross-1. Likewise, boll weight, GOT and fiber length in populations derived from cross-2 in normal condition were also under the influence of complementary type of non-allelic interaction. Significant differences among values of mid parent and better parent heterosis for boll weight in both normal and heat stress condition provided the opportunity to cotton breeders for utilization of this germplasm for improvement of this trait through exploitation of heterosis breeding.

[Conclusion] Cross-1 performed better in heat stress and could be utilized for development of heat tolerant cultivar. RCI was under the influence of additive gene action, so one can rely on this trait for screening of large number of accessions of cotton for heat stress. While other traits were predominantly controlled by non-additive gene action and selection based on these should be delayed in later generations.

 

[Authors] SALMAN Muhammad, ZIA Zia Ullah, RANA Iqrar Ahmad, MAQSOOD Rana Haroon, AHMAD Saghir, BAKHSH Ali, AZHAR Muhammad Tehseen

Journal of Cotton Research. 2019; 2: 9

https://doi.org/10.1186/s42397-019-0025-2

Comparative studies on seed protein characteristics in eight lines of two Gossypium species

[Abstract]
Background: In order to achieve the targets aiming at the improvement of protein quality, knowledge regarding seed protein fractions and polypeptides constituting them in different crops is essential. Besides having high nutritional value as animal feed and human food, the protein isolates from cottonseed meal have also been proven promising as industrial raw materials for a number of applications. As far as Indian work on the characterization of cotton seed proteins is concerned, relatively meagre reports are available. Keeping in mind the importance of cotton seed proteins, lines belonging to Gossypium arboreum L. (Indian cotton) and G. hirsutum L. (American cotton) which are grown in all the major cotton growing states in India were selected for analysing their seed protein characteristics.

Results: Whereas G. arboreum (A-genome) lines revealed a lower range of seed protein content i.e. 19.5~24.3%, an upper range (21.8~29.5%) could be observed in lines of G. hirsutum (AD-genome). Globulins represented dominating fraction in both species followed by albumins, glutelins and prolamins. A significant positive correlation between albumins/globulins and seed protein content in G. arboreum /G. hirsutum, respectively, was observed. Intraspecific electrophoretic variation in seed protein extracts was observed in the region of molecular weight 22 kDa – 27 kDa in lines of both the species; however some lines with A-genome showed similarity in banding pattern with AD-genome. Four polypeptides with disulphide-linkages were also reported for the first time. Albumins were observed to reveal more variations in their electrophoretic pattern between the lines of two species followed by globulins.

Conclusion: On the basis of present and previous studies, screening the lines with low or high protein content will lead the selection of lines with superior polypeptide fraction important for nutritional and industrial purposes. On comparing the composition and behaviour of four 2-S linked polypeptides with other plant groups, these were suggested to be legumin-like in nature. The similarity in banding patterns between the lines of A-genome and AD-genome species marked towards the close evolutionary relationship between these two. Albumin fractions on the basis of our results could be taken for cultivar differentiation in cotton crop.

[Keywords]
Gossypium, SDS-PAGE, Seed proteins, Globulins

Original text: https://jcottonres.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s42397-019-0024-3

[Authors] SINGH Arvinder, KAUR Amanjot

Effect of Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) on Verticillium Wilt of Cotton

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Authors

Hamdullah Korhan1, Lale Efe2, Yuksel Bolek3 and Mustafa Kusek4

1Kahramanmaras Sutcu ımam university, graduate school of natural and applied sciences, Kahramanmaras, Turkey

2Kahramanmaras Sutcu Imam University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of

Field Crops, Kahramanmaras, Turkey,

3Kahramanmaras Sutcu Imam University Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Agricultural Biotechnology, Kahramanmaras, Turkey

4Kahramanmaras Sutcu Imam University Faculty of Agriculture, Department of

Plant Protection, Kahramanmaras, Turkey

Abstract

Verticillium wilt of cotton is a destructive disease that causes considerable yield losses on the crop. There is no effective method for controlling Verticillium wilt of cotton that is one of the world’s most devastating diseases except breeding resistant varieties. Due to environmental concerns of chemicals used in the control of this disease in which using antagonistic bacteria as a biocontrol agent to suppress the disease is very important. In addition, bacteria converting phosphorus to a form that is useful for the plant can offer an advantage for plant growth and disease resistance. Isolation the bacteria from the soil and use as plant growth regulation are the focus of some research has been going on.

Starting by 2014, this study will continue for 3 years. Starting, soil samples were collected at different vegetative periods of plant from 25 different cotton producing areas (from July to September) and pure strain cultivars were obtained from 650 soil samples. Tests applied to these strains are Hypersensitive Reaction on Tobacco, Levan Formation, Oxidase, Hydrogen Peroxide And Potassium Hydroxide. Resulting of identification tests, isolates that doesn’t have pathogenicity were tested for the ability to convert the phosphorus obtainable for by the plants, resulting of identification tests, isolates that doesn’t have pathogenicity will be used to antimicrobial activity in both greenhouse and in the field trials.

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