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Senior Scientist, Central Institute for Cotton Research, ICAR, Regional Station, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India
The influence of Extension in Indian Cotton sector is time immemorial, influential and imperative. Extension in cotton started during the American civil war, when the Confederacy has stopped sending cotton to British which prompted the Britain to turn to Indian cotton. The spread of American and Egyptian cotton in Indian soil was the evidence for the existence of cotton extension in the country in 18th and 19th centuries. The establishment of various institutions expedited the extension work of cotton in India in 20th century. The visible changes created in the production were the evidences for the effectiveness of the cotton extension programs executed during that century. The first line extension programs of Indian Council of Agricultural Research facilitated the effective transfer of latest cotton technologies both in last as well as in the current century. Presently, in the information era, to speed up the diffusion of technologies from the research system to the end users, ICAR-Central Institute for Cotton Research has been executing a novel mobile phone based extension mechanism called “e-Kapas network” for effective knowledge transfer. Disseminating cotton technologies through regular voice SMS in vernacular languages to the cotton growers registered with the network in ten different cotton growing states of the country is the major mandate of the project. Under this project, in Tamil Nadu state alone, up to June 2015, 11864 farmers had registered and so far 2,41,917 voice SMS alerts have been sent to the registered growers. Even though, the impact of this approach nullifies the criticism that results and advisories of cotton research did not reach the farmers in time, still there are needs to include other extension innovations and technology forecasting aiming inclusive development with the current program. Proposing a synergetic cotton extension model for profitable and sustainable cotton farming with due consideration of changes occurring in the cotton scenario, sector and among stakeholders is the need of hour. This paper is the outcome of the review and analysis on the history, development, Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Challenges of past Indian cotton extension programs and proposal of a new synergetic approach for the near future.
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A site dedicated to cotton innovations for West and Central Africa, an English version of this website is now available
Factsheets are available on innovations in the cotton supply chains, sustainability indicators for cotton farming systems (related to the SEEP report), economic information, etc.
Enjoy your visit.
The Seventh Meeting of the Asian Cotton Research and Development Network was held at Nagpur during 15-17 September 2017. The Indian Society for Cotton Improvement (ISCI), Mumbai hosted the meeting together with the ICAR-CICR (Central Institute for Cotton Research), Nagpur and ICAR-CIRCOT (Central Institute for Research on Cotton Technologies). The main theme of the meeting was PRODUCING QUALITY FIBRE & DOUBLING COTTON FARMERS INCOME. Cotton researchers from public and the private sector participated. Dr. C. D. Mayee, President, Indian Society for Cotton Improvement, was the chairman, of the organizing Committee. The meeting elected Dr. Prashant G. Patil as Chairman of the Network until the next meeting. Eminent cotton experts i.e., Dr. Timorthy Dennehy, Dr Judith Brown, Dr Albert Santos from US; Dr Derek Russell from Australia, Dr Negm from Egypt and several senior research leaders from India and Bangladesh attended the meeting. The proceedings, recommendations, presentations and abstracts of the meeting can be accessed here.
Proceedings are available
The Seventh Meeting of the Asian Cotton Research and Development Network was held at Nagpur, India during 15-17 September 2017. The Indian Society for Cotton Improvement (ISCI), Mumbai hosted the meeting together with the ICAR-CICR (Central Institute for Cotton Research), Nagpur and ICAR-CIRCOT (Central Institute for Research on Cotton Technologies).
The main theme of the meeting was “PRODUCING QUALITY FIBRE & DOUBLING COTTON FARMERS INCOME.” Cotton researchers from public and the private sector participated. Dr. C.D. Mayee, President, Indian Society for Cotton Improvement, was the Chairman of the Organizing Committee. The meeting elected Dr. Prashant G. Patil as Chairman of the Network until the next meeting. Eminent cotton experts like Dr. Timorthy Dennehy, Dr Judith Brown, Dr Albert Santos from US; Dr Derek Russell from Australia; Dr Negm from Egypt and several senior research leaders from India and Bangladesh attended the meeting.
The proceedings, recommendations, presentations and abstracts of the meeting are now available at the ICAC website.
Topical issue of women’s performance in agriculture
Given the phenomenon of the feminization of agriculture in many countries, particularly where the economic development is attracting men out of agriculture, the issue of the performance of feminized agriculture has gained topical importance. The phenomenon of feminization is even observed with some concern because women’s performance used to be reported low.
Gender comparison of performance used to be biased
The observed performance of women has been frequently lower to that of men, but it is not because they are women, but because they do not produce similarly to men. Particularly, women used to have less, if not much less access to production factors.
Scientific literature has provided sufficient evidence about the issue of access and many international organizations (FAO, the World Bank…) have been advocating to improve the access to production factors by women, as a means to improve the performance of the whole agricultural sector.
The current international advocacy lies on the assumption that when women have improved access to production factors, the increase of their performance will result. Such a phenomenon has nevertheless seldom be observed and assessed.
A paper very recently available online is compensating for the lack of evidence mentioned above. Download of free full text is still possible up to the number of downloads allocated to the authors; so it’s first asking, first served. At the time of publishing this post, there were 38 eprints remaining.
A joint publication of ICRA and the ICAC
Thirty-three researchers described over 2,000 terms used in cotton production, consumption and trade.
Order your copy from the ICAC at firstname.lastname@example.org .
Price is US$50 (including mailing)
You can order online.
With the recent completion of draft sequencing of diploid cotton Gossypium raimondii and G. arboreum genomes published in Nature Genetics, and the first “gold-standard” version of G. raimondii genome published in Nature, cotton research community enjoyed the pick of many seminal research results that have provided a glorious opportunity to study orthologous and paralogous genes and gene families in allotetraploid cotton.
These successes and great achievements in ancestral diploid genome sequencing further resulted in decoding of the representative genome of widely grown allotetraploid Upland (G. hirsutum L.) cotton, Texas Marker-1.
Two independent research papers published in Nature Biotechnology by Zhang et al. and Li et al. in this week issue described the complex allotetraploid TM-1 genome that further entered cotton research to an era of “golden” opportunities providing the first insights into allotetraploid cotton genome structure, genome rearrangements, gene evolution, cotton fiber biology and biotechnology that will help to rapidly translate the genomics “knowledge” to an “economic impact”!
Congratulation to all cotton community with these latest achievements, high impact journal seminal publications, and hard work to foster cotton research!
New open access book of Intech entitled “World Cotton Germplasm Resources” (ISBN 978-953-51-1622-6) has just been published online. Book has compiled 11 peer-reviewed chapters from several leading cotton growing countries including Australia, China, India, Pakistan, United States of America, and Uzbekistan. It provided updated information on the current status and detailed inventory of available cotton germplasm resources. All chapters also targeted to address the past and current progress; enrichment of collections with novel germplasm resources including Bt-cotton, RNA interference and markers assisted selection lines; new trends and molecular tools in germplasm evaluations, development of database, understanding genetic diversity and its exploitation in cotton breeding; future perspectives of existing collections; critical challenges and opportunities in preserving the cotton genetic resources; and the ongoing multi-national communication and collaboration to enhance the germplasm protection, preservation, and evaluation. This book should be useful reading source on worldwide cotton germplasm resources. The content of this book is freely available for downloading at (http://www.intechopen.com/books/world-cotton-germplasm-resources).
Climate change is real and will affect cotton growth and yield. Climate change is occurring because of increased greenhouse gases, mainly CO2, in the atmosphere causing global warming and related changes in various weather phenomena. Increasing CO2 levels should be beneficial to plant growth and yield because increasing ambient CO2 would enhance photosynthesis and plant growth. This is because photosynthesis in cotton responds to increasing CO2,such that increasing CO2 levels above the current ambient level would result in higher amounts of CO2 fixed, and therefore increased carbohydrate production and enhanced plant growth. It has been estimated that the photosynthetic rate of agricultural crops such as cotton would increase by 33% with a doubling of the CO2 concentration. In addition to enhancing canopy photosynthesis, CO2 is also a competitive inhibitor of photorespiration, and both of these factors result in increased growth and productivity. However, other factors come into play with climate such as increased temperatures, altered precipitation patterns, and changed season length that could negatively impact the advantages of increased CO2 levels
There has been much concern worldwide about climate change resulting from global warming and the possible effects on agriculture and human food supply. Most of the global climate change scenarios include change in the amount and pattern of precipitation, more restricted water availability, more frequent occurrence of extreme weather events including heat waves, droughts and heavy rainfall, longer growing seasons, and possible changing geographical regions suitable for crop production. These changes will effect agriculture and necessitate adaptive production practices.
Cotton production will be impacted by future climate change. Although the increased photosynthesis caused by the rising CO2 levels will promote increased biomass production, this will not necessarily translate into higher yields due to the negative impact higher temperatures have on reproductive growth. However, rising temperatures will lengthen the season available for growing cotton, permitting shifts in planting dates and also permitting cotton to be double-cropped behind other crops in an expanded region. Rising temperatures may also eventually promote the movement of cotton production into more northern regions.