Amino acids application enhances flowers insecticidal protein content in Bt cotton

[Background] Low insecticidal protein expression at reproductive organs affect insect resistance in Bt transgenic cotton. In order to enhance flower insecticidal protein expression, the conventional cultivar Sikang1 (S1) and the hybrid cultivar Sikang3 (S3) were used as experimental materials; the applications of selected 5 types of amino acids and 21 types of amino acids were sprayed on the flowers in 2016 and 2017 cotton growing seasons.

[Results] The flower Bt protein contents increased significantly under the two amino acid treatments in both cultivars, the Bt protein concentration increased by 15.2 to 25.8% compared with the control. However, no significant differences were detected between the two treatments of amino acid application. Increased amino acid and soluble protein contents, enhanced GPT, GOT, protease,and peptidase activities were observed under the amino acid application at the flowering stage.

[Conclusions] These results suggest that exterior application of the amino acids treatments could bolster the flower insecticidal protein expression.

[Authors] TAMBEL Leila. I. M., ZHOU Mingyuan, CHEN Yuan, ZHANG Xiang, CHEN Yuan  and CHEN Dehua

Journal of Cotton Research. 2019; 2:7
https://doi.org/10.1186/s42397-019-0023-4

Use of Male Sterility in Cotton and Molecular markers for Fertility Restoration in CGMS of G.hirstum Cotton

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Authors

I.S. Katageri, *Rashmi Ranjan Toppo, and B.M. Khadi

 *Department of Biotechnology, College of Agriculture University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad – 580 005, India

*Email: katageriis@uasd.in

Abstract

Cotton is one among the few often cross-pollinated crops, where the achievement of commercial exploitation of heterosis is comparable to even that of cross-pollinated crops like  maize.  The main bottleneck in exploitation of hybrid vigour in cotton is the complicated technique of seed production, which involves hand emasculation and pollination that makes hybrid cotton seed more costly. To improve the remunerative value of hybrid seed production and commercial cultivation of hybrid it is necessary to develop productive male sterile based hybrids. Although Cytoplasmic Genetic Male Sterility is available, the identification of restorer for 100 percent fertility restoration was problematic. Molecular markers are coming handy in identifying such plants. The present study, therefore, comprised 413 individual plants comprising of 164 A-line and B-line, 124 IPS of R-line, 13 hybrids, 3 cultivars, 4 wild species, 24 G. hirsutum germplasm lines, 80 RILs and 1 GMS line were studied during 2012-13 and 2013-14 at ARS, Dharwad farm. Twenty four molecular markers known to be associated with fertility restoration (10 RAPD, 7 SSR, 6 STS, and 1 TRAP) were studied. Out of these, 3 STS markers (Y1107, UBC 147 and UBC 607) were able to amplify only in 44 plants out of 124 belong to DR-7 (known for fertility restoration). No amplification was observed in diverse genetic background of A-lines and their respective B-lines, wild species, G. barbadense var. SBYF 425, G. arboreum var. DLSa 17, G. herbaceum var. Jayadhar, G. hirsutum germplasm lines and Abadhita GMS line (sterile and its maintainer line). However amplification by these three markers was recorded in 6 out of 80 RILs of DCH-32 hybrids. Co-segregation for 98-100 percent fertility restoration and molecular markers associated was observed in F2 of cross between A line and fertility restorer carrying three molecular markers.

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Comparative chloroplast genome sequence analyses of gossypium thurberi with two cultivated allotetraploid gossypium species

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Author

Farshid Talat

West Azerbaijan Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Center, AREEO, Urmia, Iran

Abstract

The chloroplast is the sole site for photosynthetic activities in green plants and contains the whole enzymatic machinery needed for this purpose. Gossypium thurberi is a wild diploid species and also one of the most important taxa in the genus which widely has been used to improve cultivated allotetraploid cotton with its great potential of genetic resources. Present study was conducted in order to analyse sequence of its chloroplast. The thurberi chloroplast  (cp) genome  is 160264 bp  in length which has conserved quadripartite structure. Single copy region of cp genome is separated by the two inverted regions. The large single copy region is 88,737 bp, and the small single copy region is 20,271 bp whereas the inverted repeat 25,628 bp each. The genome has 113 single genes and 20 duplicated genes. These single genes comprised of 79 protein coded genes, 4 ribosomal RNA genes and 30 transfer RNA genes. Out of all the genes, 18 genes have 1 or 2 introns. As Compared to cpDNA from the two cultivated allotetraploid Gossypium species, rps18 was duplicated only in thurberi.

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Effects of interspecific hybridization on cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.*Gossypium Barbadense L.)

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Authors

Mehmet ÇOBAN1, Aydın ÜNAY2, Hakan ÇİFCİ3,Birnur İLHAN4

1Cotton Research Institute, 09800 Nazilli, Turkey

2Department of Crop Science, Adnan Menderes University, 09100 Aydin, Turkey

3Sheep Breeding Research Institute, 10200 Bandırma, Turkey

4General Directorate of Agricultural Research and Policies, 06171 Ankara, Turkey

Abstract

The experimental material Claudia, Candia, Şahin 2000, BA 308, Naz 07 and Fantom (Gossypium hirsutum L.) were used as a female parents and Giza 45 and Avesto (Gossypium barbadense L.) used as a male parents. The selected cotton genotypes were crossed by line tester method. An experiment was carried out in randomized complete block design with four replications to assess hereditary and heterotic effects on yield components and fiber quality traits. The research was carried outat Cotton Research Station Nazilli during the year 2011. Positive heterosis percentage was obtained from all hybrids for fiber length and fiber strength. Standard heterosis values were positive and significant for fiber length, fiber strength and micronaire.The performance of all combinations for yield and fiber quality traits at F1 generations showed that Claudia x Giza 45, Candia x Giza 45, Şahin 2000 x Giza 45, BA 308 x Avesto, Naz 07 x Giza 45 and Fantom x Avesto hybrid populations would be used for improve cotton lines having enhanced for fiber length with acceptable yield potentials.

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Leaf reddening index as an indicator of leaf reddening malady in bt cotton hybrids: causes and remedies

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Authors

Y. Rakshitha1, B. S. Janagoudar* and A. Amaregouda2

1 Postgraduate scholar, 2 Professor of Crop Physiology

*        Correspondence : Dr. B. S. Janagoudar, Dean (Agri), College of Agriculture,

University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad – 580 005, Karnataka, India e-mail : bjanagoudar56@gmail.com, deanacd@uasd.in

Abstract

In the recent past, leaf reddening has been a major problem in Bt-cotton and this is an outcome of interaction of location, variety, environmental condition and nutrients. In general, inter and intra specific tetraploid Bt hybrids are more sensitive and vulnerable to this malady may be because of Bt gene interaction. Leaf reddening may occur at any growth stage of the crop. At grand growth  phase (flowering and boll development) any hindrance in the assimilate production, translocation and distribution intensifies the leaf reddening effect and symptoms are prolific in nature under extreme stress situations (Poongothai et  al., 2010).

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Molecular breeding: cotton transcriptome analysis, characterisation and validation of fibre strength genes assistive in marker assisted selection

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Author

B.R.Patil,I.S. Katageri,B.M Khadi, G. Balasubramani, K.P.Raghvendra, J.Amudha, S.K.Deshpande

Abstract

The relative gene expression of GhcesA1, GhcesA2, and GhcesA7 orthologus of AtcesA8, AtcesA4, and AtcesA7 respectively, Ghcobl4, Ghfla3 and GhMT1genes using Recombinant Inbred Lines mapping population was studied through q PCR. The results showed that GhcesA1, GhcesA2, Ghfla3 and Ghcobl4 were strongly associated with secondary wall synthesis and hence the plan is to prepare the gene construct with an appropriate fibre specific promoter to transform a suitable genotype. To validate the q PCR analysis, Scanning Electron Microscope study was conducted to confirm that cellulose is a key entity for conferring high fibre strength. The high fiber strength line HBS144 (28.0 g/tex) and low fiber strength line, HBS 187 (20.0 g/tex ) fiber’s micrograph showed that HBS 144 had strong series of fibrillar structure which was found less in HBS 187.A fibre diameter of 17µm was observed in HBS144 while ,a 10 µm fiber diameter was recorded in HBS 187.The fibrils which relate to deposition of cellulose had a diameter of 0.2 µm for HBS 144 and 0.1 µm for HBS 187 respectively. The RNA sequence analysis of HBS 144 and 187 revealed 74.6 million and 53.4 million raw reads respectively through Illumina. The number of unigenes expressed for genotype HBS-144 were 11328 while , 6866 unigenes were observed for HBS-187. A total of 14828 unigenes were up regulated while, a total of 13468 unigenes were down regulated in both genotypes employed for the study.The total number of identified SSR’s for HBS 144 were 29868 while, 21680 SSR’s were identified for HBS 187.The total number of variants (SNP) were 90857 for HBS 144 while, 74161 variants were observed for HBS 187.The plan is to utilize these SSR’ s and SNP ‘s for Marker assisted selection after validation by Gold standard linkage map.

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JCR-Role of SNPs in determining QTLs for major traits in cotton

Abstract: A single nucleotide polymorphism is the simplest form of genetic variation among individuals and can induce minor changes in phenotypic, physiological and biochemical characteristics. This polymorphism induces various mutations that alter the sequence of a gene which can lead to observed changes in amino acids. Several assays have been developed for identification and validation of these markers. Each method has its own advantages and disadvantages but genotyping by sequencing is the most common and most widely used assay. These markers are also associated with several desirable traits like yield, fibre quality, boll size and genes respond to biotic and abiotic stresses in cotton. Changes in yield related traits are of interest to plant breeders. Numerous quantitative trait loci with novel functions have been identified in cotton by using these markers. This information can be used for crop improvement through molecular breeding approaches. In this review, we discuss the identification of these markers and their effects on gene function of economically important traits in cotton.

Keywords: Abiotic stresses, Biotic stresses, Cotton, Earliness, Genotyping by sequencing

 

Role of SNPs in determining QTLs for major traits in cotton

MAJEED Sajid, RANA Iqrar Ahmad, ATIF Rana Muhammad, ALI Zulfiqar, HINZE Lori  and AZHAR Muhammad Tehseen

Journal of Cotton Research. 2019; 2:5

https://doi.org/10.1186/s42397-019-0022-5

https://jcottonres.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s42397-019-0022-5

Effects of NaCl stress on the biochemical substances in Bt cotton as well as on the growth and development and adult oviposition selectivity of Helicoverpa armigera

Background

Recently, due to the development of food security strategies, cotton has been planted in inland saline-alkali dry soils or in coastal some saline-alkali soils in China. Under the condition, to comprehensively prevent and control Helicoverpa armigera in cotton fields with saline-alkali soils, it is important to study the larval growth and development of H. armigera and to study adult oviposition selectivity in H. armigera adults that feed on NaCl-stressed cotton plants.

Results

In this study, Bt cotton GK19 was used for the experimental group and its nontransgenic parent Simian 3 was used for the control to study the effects of biochemical substances in cotton as well as larval growth and development and adult oviposition selectivity of H. armigera. The experiments were performed by growing cotton indoors under NaCl stress at concentrations of 0 mmol·L− 1, 75 mmol·L− 1 and 150 mmol·L− 1, respectively. The results showed that the expression of Bt protein was significantly inhibited for NaCl-stressed Bt cotton. The content of soluble protein and K+ in the leaves of cotton were decreased, while the content of gossypol and Na+ were increased. In addition, the 5th instar H. armigera larvae exhibited shorten the life span in a 13-day trial period. Under enclosure treatments and at different female densities, the adult oviposition of H. armigera decreased on high NaCl-stressed nontransgenic cotton, while the oviposition on Bt cotton tended to first increase but then decrease under low, moderate and high NaCl stress treatments.

Conclusions

Under certain content ranges of NaCl stress treatments, larval of H. armigera growth and development, and adult oviposition were no significant difference in the change for a certain period. However, under high NaCl stress, larval growth, development and adult oviposition were affected, which may provide insights for the prevention and control of H. armigera for Bt cotton in saline-alkali soils.

 

Effects of NaCl stress on the biochemical substances in Bt cotton as well as on the growth and development and adult oviposition selectivity of Helicoverpa armigera

LUO Junyu, ZHANG Shuai, ZHU Xiangzhen, JI Jichao, ZHANG Kaixin, WANG Chunyi, ZHANG Lijuan, WANG Li and CUI Jiniie

Journal of Cotton Research. 2019; 2:4

https://doi.org/10.1186/s42397-019-0020-7

 

https://jcottonres.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s42397-019-0020-7

JCR-Genome-wide identification of Gossypium INDETERMINATE DOMAIN genes and their expression profiles in ovule development and abiotic stress responses

Background

INDETERMINATE DOMAIN (IDD) transcription factors form one of the largest and most conserved gene families in plant kingdom and play important roles in various processes of plant growth and development, such as flower induction in term of flowering control. Till date, systematic and functional analysis of IDDgenes remained infancy in cotton.

Results

In this study, we identified total of 162 IDD genes from eight different plant species including 65 IDD genes in Gossypium hirsutum. Phylogenetic analysis divided IDDs genes into seven well distinct groups. The gene structures and conserved motifs of GhIDD genes depicted highly conserved exon-intron and protein motif distribution patterns. Gene duplication analysis revealed that among 142 orthologous gene pairs, 54 pairs have been derived by segmental duplication events and four pairs by tandem duplication events. Further, Ka/Ksvalues of most of orthologous/paralogous gene pairs were less than one suggested the purifying selection pressure during evolution. Spatiotemporal expression pattern by qRT-PCR revealed that most of the investigated GhIDD genes showed higher transcript levels in ovule of seven days post anthesis, and upregulated response under the treatments of multiple abiotic stresses.

Conclusions

Evolutionary analysis revealed that IDD gene family was highly conserved in plant during the rapid phase of evolution. Whole genome duplication, segmental as well as tandem duplication significantly contributed to the expansion of IDDgene family in upland cotton. Some distinct genes evolved into special subfamily and indicated potential role in the allotetraploidy Gossypium hisutum evolution and development. High transcript levels of GhIDD genes in ovules illustrated their potential roles in seed and fiber development. Further, upregulated responses of GhIDD genes under the treatments of various abiotic stresses suggested them as important genetic regulators to improve stress resistance in cotton breeding.

Genome-wide identification of Gossypium INDETERMINATE DOMAIN genes and their expression profiles in ovule development and abiotic stress responses

ALI Faiza, QANMBER Ghulam, LI Yonghui, MA Shuya, LU Lili, YANG Zuoren, WANG Zhi and LI Fuguang

Journal of Cotton Research 2019 2:3

https://jcottonres.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s42397-019-0021-6

JCR-Cotton High Speed Phenotyping Thematic Series Call For Paper

Journal of Cotton Research

Cotton High Speed Phenotyping
Thematic Series Call For Paper
Coordinator: Professor Eric F. Hequet, Texas Tech University, USA; Dr. Glen Ritchie, Texas Tech University, USA

Author’s allowance: The sponsor, Institute of Cotton Research, CAAS, grants to cover not only APC for the submission, but also the author’s allowance once published.

High speed phenotyping is critical to improve cotton research and production. It can be applied to large scale commercial fields, research fields, breeding lines, and even at the individual plant level. The main goals are to improve yield, fiber quality, stress and disease resistance, etc… Recently, advances in high speed phenotyping in cotton have been achieved. The Journal of Cotton Research is hosting a thematic series on this topic. The research community is encouraged to share original findings, methodology, results, databases, and/or software and opinions.

Scopes that may be covered in the submissions may include, but are not limited to the following:
1. Platform design: air-based and/or land-based;
2. Data capture and processing: sensors (RGB, IR, multispectral, sonic, etc.), integration of multiple sensors, information processing technologies;
3. Data analysis and Metadata: analysis of very large data sets, validation with ground truth, practical application examples (breeding programs, site specific irrigation scheduling, etc.).

Submission Deadline: April 30, 2019

https://jcottonres.biomedcentral.com/cottonhsp