Extra-fine cotton improvement in sudan

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Author

Ahmed M. Mustafa, Maria Abdalla Abdelrahman Musa and Abdrahman Abdellatif

Agricultural Research Corporation, Wad Medani, Sudan

Abstract

New Extra-fine cotton (Gossypium barbadense L.) lines have been developed with intermediate reaction to bacterial blight disease. The advantage seed cotton yield of the lines over Barakat 90 was in the range of 4-28 per cent. They had longer, stronger and finer fibers compared to Barakat-90. The lines were earlier cropping and gave 45.6-61.2 per cent of their yield in the first pick compared to 43.5 for Barakat-Hence these lines signify improvement in seed cotton yield, fiber quality, earliness of maturity and reaction to bacterial blight in Sudan extra-fine cotton.

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Maintaining Scheme of The Egyptian Cotton varieties

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Author

Gaber M. Hemaida 

Cotton Research Institute, ARC, Egypt.

Abstract

In Egypt, the problem of cotton varieties deterioration has been the subject of concern since the early days of Egyptian cotton cultivation. It appears to be true, that many varieties in the early years of this century went out of cultivation because they were mixed by “strange” cotton- seed and deteriorated, rather than  they  were  valueless in  their pure state. Naturally, the economic losses incurred by deterioration led Egyptian government to pay attention  to  this problem and means to maintain the cottonseed production areas of such high quality varieties.

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Egyptian Cotton Breeding Program

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Author

Hasan Al-Adly

Cotton Research Institute, Giza-Egypt

Abstract

All the Egyptian cotton varieties belong to Gossypium barbadense L. Egyptian cotton breeding program is unique and depends onbreeding pure progeny lines, therefore Egyptian cotton varieties have higher stability and continues for several years in common agricultural.

Cotton breeding research section CRI- ARC in Egypt is responsible for the production and breeding of cotton varieties .more than 80 cotton varieties were bred and introduced by artificial crossing followed  by single plant selection from one generation to another accompanied by the selfing of flowers of the selected plants (Pedigree method).

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CRYSTALLINITY, CRYSTALLITE SIZE, FINE STRUCTURAL AND PHYSICAL FIBRE PROPERTIES AT TWO FIBRE MATURITY LEVELS IN TWO EGYPTIAN COTTON CULTIVARS

Abstract                                                                         Back to Table of contents

Fibre maturity is an important characteristic of cotton. It affects the yield of lint as well as the quality of cotton fibre. Two ELS Egyptian cotton cultivars, Giza 45 and Giza 77, were used in this study at 65% and 80% fibre maturity levels. The crystalline characters were studied using a wide angle X-ray diffraction technique in their native state and after waxy substance extraction. The crystallinity percent of the fibres after waxy substance extraction at high maturity cotton were 80% and 81% for Giza 45 and Giza 77, respectively; they were 67% and 69% at low maturity.  Native cotton fibre gave a misleading value of 80% and 82% of crystallinity percent for high and low maturity levels of Giza 45, respectively. This result explains the importance of wax extraction during X-ray diffraction. Also, there was a high relationship between fibre maturity and degree of crystallinity after waxy substance extraction from the fibre sample. The crystallite size is almost the same for L002 this is about 3.5 nm for high and low maturity levels, respectively.

The cotton having higher fibre maturity had higher values of fibre strength at 1/8 or 0 inch gauge. number of convolutions per cm, and secondary wall width. The immature cotton had the higher values of waxy substances. Giza 45 was the higher in waxy substances and fibre elongation %, it had the lower ribbon width and diameter after swelling.  The present study points to the importance of incorporating fibre maturity in the marketing system.

Conclusion

There was a close relationship between crystallinity percent with fibre maturity, fibre strength at 1/8 or 0 inch gauge, number of convolutions per cm. and lumen width.  Giza 45 was the higher in waxy substances and fibre elongation %, it had the lower ribbon width and diameter after swelling. This study shows the importance of fibre maturity as a major fibre property, especially in marketing.

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NEW COTTON VARIETIES FOR IPM

Abstract                                                                         Back to Table of contents

The major insect pests attacking cotton in the Sudan are the American bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera (HB), jassids, Jacobiasca lybica (De Berg), whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) and aphids, Aphis gossypii (Glover).

Chemical control is widely used with the number of sprayings ranging between 4‑6. The cost of protection more than quadrupled during the last two seasons amounting to 40% of the total cost of production. The implementation of an alternative crop protection strategy capable of reducing the number of sprays had been seriously considered.

The alternative strategy hinged on delaying the sprays against the early season pests to encourage the build‑up of the natural enemies against the late season pests. The incorporation of the characters okra leaf and glabrousness offered host resistance against the whitefly while hairiness protected the crop against the early season pest, jassids, allowing the build‑up of the natural enemies against the late season pests. The release of two new varieties Acala (82) 8A and Acala (82) 8B varying in hair density is reported and data pertaining to pest load, yield and quality are discussed.

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LOSS IN SEED COTTON YIELD DUE TO FUSARIUM WILT IN SUDAN GEZIRA

Abstract                                                                         Back to Table of contents

Loss in seed cotton (Gossypium barbadense L.) yield, resulting from Fusarium vascular wilt disease (Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht f. sp. vasinfectum (Atk.) Snyd. and Hans), was assessed for three consecutive seasons, on nine cultivars of different disease resistance and yield potential.  The resistant cultivars outyielded the susceptible ones under high disease pressure.  In all three seasons yields of the resistant cultivars were significantly higher (P = .05) than that of the standard ‘Barakat’.  Superiority in yield was clearly due to the low level of the disease.  Under no disease stress, yields of a resistant ‘EBWR’ and a susceptible ‘B-Pima’ cultivars, only, were significantly higher (P = .05) than that of ‘Barakat’.  The yields of two other resistant cultivars ‘EB(73))1-1’ and ‘GS(84)3’, though higher than that of the standard, were lower than the susceptible, but higher yield potential cultivars, ‘B-Pima’ and ‘OLB’.  Yields of two other resistant cultivars ‘EB(73)3-3’ and ‘Maryoud’ were even lower than the standard.  It is concluded that resistance to Fusarium wilt leads to stability in seed cotton yield, and cultivar EBWR should be useful in developing other Fusarium resistant and high yielding cultivars.

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THE HERITABILITY OF YIELD, YIELD COMPONENTS AND FIBRE TECHNOLOGICAL PROPERTIES IN PARTIAL DIALLEL HYBRIDS OF UPLAND COTTON (GOSSYPIUM HIRSUTUM L.) VARIETIES IN SOUTHEASTERN ANATOLIA REGION OF TURKEY

Abstract                                                                         Back to Table of contents

This study was conducted on the Fl and the parental genotypes obtained from the partial diallel cross of 12 promising varieties (Gossypium hirsutum L.) with the objectives of creating genetic resources and detecting early varieties with higher yields and more desirable fibre qualities in Southeastern Anatolia region of Turkey.

It was found that variances among the varieties and lines were significant for all the traits investigated, with the exception of fibre maturity. However specific combining ability effects were significant in relation to number of bolls, seed cotton yield, earliness, number of carpels, 100 seed weight and fibre strength. General combining ability effects were highly significant for all the investigated traits. The additive genetic variances were more pronounced than the dominance genetic variances with respect to all the traits studied with the exception of the number of sympodial branches and fibre fineness.  While the number of sympodia, monopodia, plant height, number of bolls, boll weight, number of carpels, seed-cotton weight, ginning percentage, fibre fineness, maturity and uniformity ratios demonstrated positive heterosis values, other traits studied showed negative values. With respect to heterobeltiosis the number of sympodia, plant height, boll weight, 100 seed weight, fibre fineness and fibre uniformity ratio showed positive values and the others negative.

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AGRONOMIC MANAGEMENT OF EXTRA FINE COTTON FOR HIGHER GRADES IN EGYPT

Introduction                                                               Back to Table of contents

Egyptian cotton is the major cash crop of Egypt.  It is the main item affecting the Egyptian economy.  Over two million people are dependent on it for their livelihood.  Cotton is mainly used for clothing.  Its oil and oil seed cake are two by-products used by man and animal.

Cotton growing started in Egypt in 1820, when a Frenchman, Monsieur Jumel, discovered a kind of fine cotton that was planted in an orchard.  Mohamed Ali Pasha, the founder of Modern Egypt imported some Sea Island and Brazilian cotton seeds between 1832 and 1865.  We believe these three varieties are the origin of Egyptian cotton.

Cotton growing and production was monopolized by the government up to 1840, when it was liberated by Said Pasha, the governor of Egypt at that time; since then it greatly flourished.  Strangely enough we realized that the same applies now.  Thirty years after nationalization of the cotton trade, it seems the only way for cotton to regain its glory is to go back to free trade.

….More in the downloadable file

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QUALITY ASSESSMENT FOR BREEDING EGYPTIAN HIGH QUALITY COTTON VARIETIES

Abstract                                                                         Back to Table of contents

The cotton breeding program in Egypt has developed over a long time.  Strong emphasis has always been put on quality and a good deal of improvement  with  yield potential and agronomic characters.

Methods of quality measurement and  evaluation  of  strains tested in the breeding  program  have  developed  through  three distinct stages: (i) in the  early  days, quality  assessment depended mainly on the graders skilled judgment and later on fiber length and fineness,  (ii)  as  from  1936,  assessment depended on yarn strength supported by fiber length and fineness and (iii) as from the mid 1960s, a  new  system  has been developed that takes into account several important quality parameters including: fiber,  length,  fineness  and   maturity, strength  and  elongation  and  yarn  strength, neppiness  and regularity. The system is based on setting up guide‑line scales for each of the four quality categories of Egyptian cotton.   It is concluded that such  systems  are  helpful  but  it  is  the skilled judgement  of  experienced technologists  that  counts  in giving the breeder the support he needs.

Conclusion

From the extensive experience gained through more than a quarter  century  of  involvement  with  the  Egyptian  cotton  breeding program, it could be concluded that in dealing with high quality ELS and LS cottons, breeding  offers  many  valuable  opportunities  for improvement.  Depending on systems based on  guide‑lines  scales  or other approaches for selection for quality is  undoubtedly  helpful. However, in all cases, what is really needed is the skilled judgment of experienced technologists who can use knowledge and vision of the future requirements of the cotton users to  make the appropriate interpretation of the various  quality  measurements and gives the breeder the effective support he needs.  Breeders  and technologists should work in close collaboration in order to achieve the goals of cotton breeding programs.

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