Effect of Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) on Verticillium Wilt of Cotton

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Authors

Hamdullah Korhan1, Lale Efe2, Yuksel Bolek3 and Mustafa Kusek4

1Kahramanmaras Sutcu ımam university, graduate school of natural and applied sciences, Kahramanmaras, Turkey

2Kahramanmaras Sutcu Imam University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of

Field Crops, Kahramanmaras, Turkey,

3Kahramanmaras Sutcu Imam University Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Agricultural Biotechnology, Kahramanmaras, Turkey

4Kahramanmaras Sutcu Imam University Faculty of Agriculture, Department of

Plant Protection, Kahramanmaras, Turkey

Abstract

Verticillium wilt of cotton is a destructive disease that causes considerable yield losses on the crop. There is no effective method for controlling Verticillium wilt of cotton that is one of the world’s most devastating diseases except breeding resistant varieties. Due to environmental concerns of chemicals used in the control of this disease in which using antagonistic bacteria as a biocontrol agent to suppress the disease is very important. In addition, bacteria converting phosphorus to a form that is useful for the plant can offer an advantage for plant growth and disease resistance. Isolation the bacteria from the soil and use as plant growth regulation are the focus of some research has been going on.

Starting by 2014, this study will continue for 3 years. Starting, soil samples were collected at different vegetative periods of plant from 25 different cotton producing areas (from July to September) and pure strain cultivars were obtained from 650 soil samples. Tests applied to these strains are Hypersensitive Reaction on Tobacco, Levan Formation, Oxidase, Hydrogen Peroxide And Potassium Hydroxide. Resulting of identification tests, isolates that doesn’t have pathogenicity were tested for the ability to convert the phosphorus obtainable for by the plants, resulting of identification tests, isolates that doesn’t have pathogenicity will be used to antimicrobial activity in both greenhouse and in the field trials.

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Land suitability for cotton to achieve sustainable land use

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Authors

Reaz Sokouti Oskoee1*, Farshid Talat 2

1 Associate Professor, Director of West Azerbaijan Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Center, Urmia, Iran.

2 Assistant Professor, Cotton Biotechnologist, West Azerbaijan Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Center, Urmia, Iran

Abstract

Main target of this study was to classify land suitability for efficient use of agricultural land and achieve sustainable cotton production using Geographic Information System. The study carried out based on interpretation of aerial photographs with geological, topographical and land use maps. Soil map of the region were prepared using Geopedologic method. After preparing the soil map as a base map, land suitability classification for cotton determined using simple and parametric limitation method. Climate and soil requirements tables for cotton were been set. Results of the soil study indicated that the soils categories were Entisols and Inceptisols in the region. The study area was divided in 7 landforms. Soil horizons characteristic of profiles includes Ocric, calcic and cambic. Calculations showed that growth period is 170 days from 5th May till 25th October. The precipitation period is 90 days. The results also showed that the economic production of cotton is not possible in the whole area. On the other hand, due to unfavorable weather conditions, if land limitations be improved, a limited part of the study area will be relatively suitable for cotton. So the final class of climate limitation for cotton due to the temperature factor in the flowering and also relative humidity maturation stage will be class S2. Limitations of the topography factor that is exclusively distributed in the hilly areas can be seen in the small parts. Because of the soil texture and access to water and thus the possibility of further leaching of salts, the possibility of the cotton cultivation will be high.

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Center Pivots “Applications & Management”

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Authors

Khaled Shalabi

Agricultural Research Engineering Institute-ARC-Giza, Egypt

Abstract

The presentation sheds the lights on the importance of theirrigation applications and irrigation management. Irrigation applications that could be configured by center pivot and its sprinkler packagesto match the different soil types, water quality and crops.Moreover, the irrigation management  technique  when irrigating crops by center pivot and arrange its irrigation schedule according to the readings of the weather station and soil moisture units.

The application research is conducted at Sakha Agricultural Research Station during the growing season of cotton 2010, the center pivot and its sprinkler package are configured to irrigate cotton crop and match low infiltration rate of heavy clay soil.

In order to achieve better irrigation management another research has been conducted at El-Menia region during the growing season of Sugar beet crop. The research aims to come up with the proper center pivot configuration that matches the sandy soil and Sugar beet crop, plus applying the irrigation management technique using weather station and soil moisture units.

Weather  station  is used  to measure  the climatic  conditions and  daily Evapotranspiration  (ETo)  whilst moisture  unit  is used  to measure  the volumetric water content, soil soluble salinity and water suction pressure. The  results  revealed  that  selecting  the  proper  center  pivot configuration with applying the irrigation management technique have increased the distribution uniformity and reduced the operating hours during  the  growing  from  4,000  hours  to  2,500  hours  compared  to previous season, which contributes positively in reducing the operating cost, and increase the net return on investment.

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Advantages of the pivots irrigations systeme on els cotton varieties

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Author

Manuel Lopez Garcia

(Departamento de algodon  de C.I.F.A. Las Torres SPAIN)

Felipe Rey Montero

(Director de investigación de Semillas Sostenibles Iberica)

Abstract

This study aims at a better understanding of yield and quality of fiber ELS varieties, using irrigation systems LEPA (low energie aplications precision) comparing system Pivots and Drip system.

In Spain the Mediterranean climate in the Guadalquivir Valley is highly variable during the growing season (April-October) with maximum temperatures ranging from 15 ° C to just 47 ° C under these conditions most decisive factor to maximize get optimal performance and high fiber quality is achieving excellent irrigation management.

The production of ELS fiber in Spain, began in 2007 and in 2015 first reached 5,500 hectares, with a production of ELS fiber of 1,386 kg / ha, whereas fiber production in Upland varieties was 1,277 kg / ha

For this work we used interspecific hybrid varieties from crossing (Gossypium barbadense x Gossypium hirsutum) the cycle of these varieties from emergence to harvest is about 155/170 days, about 1.250-1.350 GD-15,5º

The use of hybrid varieties is motivated by the hybrid heterosis, lower cycle and higher DSI (drought susceptibility index) than regular varieties marketed of open pollinations of barbadenses varieties.

The study shows that the Pivot system was significantly more efficient, both in kg / ha of fiber yield and fiber quality parameters in length and strength.

Most physiological difference between the two systems occurred in the first 45 days as measured by CWSI (toilet crop stress index) and by monitoring during this period

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Determination of Some Agricultural and Technological Properties of Cotton Planted As Second-Crop in Wheat-Cotton Cultivation System

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Author

Sema Basbag*                                       Remzi Ekinci*

*Dicle University Faculty of Agriculture, Field Crops Department 21280- Diyarbakır, sbasbag@dicle.edu.tr

Abstract

The opportunity to increase agricultural areas is limited so that increasing demands can be achieved by producing more products from existent agricultural areas. Double cropping is a sustainable practice in which more than one crop is grown and harvested at the same time, on the same ground. This study was carried out to determined fiber technological properties of growing cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) as second crop on sttuble of ridge planted wheat in Diyarbakır in 2012. The experiment was conducted of the experimental area of Dicle University Agricultural Faculty as Randomize Complete Block Design with three replications. Eight cotton lines/varieties  (Berke,  Lachata,  BA  119,  STV  468,  STV  373, O· zbek 100, Fantom and DP 396) were used as material. The results indicated that STV 468,Fantomand Berke in terms of  seed  cotton yield; Fantom, Berke in terms of fiber length; DP 396 and Berke in terms of fiber strength had given highest values. However results showed that whether very early cotton varieties are grown, cotton will be grown as second crop after ridge planted wheat in the stubble seedling under Diyarbakir ecological condition.

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RESPONSE OF COTTON TO NPK FERTILIZATION – THE GREEK EXPERIENCE

Abstract                                                                         Back to Table of contents

Cotton is an economically important crop in Greece and experiments to determine the response of cotton to rates of fertilizers have always been an important part of research. The first experiments started almost 40 years ago and low rates of NPK showed a slight increase in cotton yield due to N and a lack of response to P and K fertilization.  The aim of this paper is to summarize the progress of more recent experiments.

Fifty-six experiments were conducted in eight cotton producing areas, for 12 successive years, testing five rates of N (0, 50, 100, 150, 200 Kg N per ha) and two rates of P (0,100 Kg P per ha) and K (0, 100 Kg K per ha). Data showed that N affected seed cotton yield, even at the very low application rate, while the effect of P was limited and that of K negligible. The increase in cotton yield as a result of N fertilization was related to the number of bolls and the boll weight. The maturity of cotton plants was related to N fertilization. Among the cotton fiber characteristics, only lint percentage was affected by fertilization.

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THE EFFECT OF STORAGE AND RADIATION ON COTTON SEED FOR SOME YIELD COMPONENTS

Abstract                                                                         Back to Table of contents

This research was set to study the effect of gamma irradiation (20 Kr.) on variability, heritability and the genetic advance upon selection for some economic traits and yield components. Dried seeds of three Egyptian cotton cultivars were used from Gossypium barbadense (Giza 77, Giza 80 and Giza 81). Results showed that gamma irradiation significantly increased means for the position of the first fruiting node, for the stored irradiated seeds and M2 recurrent generation in all cultivars under study, for M1 and M2 generation in Giza 77, and for M1 generation in Giza 81. There was no effect of the means for the number of bolls per plant, except the M2R generation which showed a significant decrease in Giza 81. Irradiation significantly increased mean boll weight for M2 generation in Giza 77 only. It significantly increased means of seed cotton yield per plant for the stored irradiated seeds and M2 generation of Giza 77 only. Using gamma rays significantly decreased means of lint percentage for M1 in Giza 77 and Giza 80 and M2R in Giza 81.

Heritability estimates in broad sense and the expected genetic advance upon selection were greater of all treatments for position of the first fruiting node in the three cultivars under study. These estimates were high for number of bolls per plant of the stored irradiated seeds and M1 generation in Giza 80. Boll weight was considered to be of intermediate heritability for Giza 77 and Giza 80 for all treatments, while response to selection were high values for this trait. The values obtained for all treatments indicated a high degree of heritability and response to selection for seed cotton yield per plant in Giza 77. The results showed a high degree of heritability and response to selection for lint percentage especially the stored irradiated seeds and M1 generation in Giza 80 and Giza 81.

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INFLUENCE OF SALINITY ON REPRODUCTIVE GROWTH OF THREE EGYPTIAN COTTON CULTIVARS

Abstract                                                                         Back to Table of contents

The objective of this study was to investigate to what extent salinity affects the reproductive growth of three Egyptian cotton cultivars Giza 77, Giza 75 and Giza 80. The salinity levels were 0, 2000, 4000 and 6000 ppm of either NaCl, NaCl + CaCl2 or NaCl + KCl.

Salinity delayed the appearance of first flower, reduced the number of fruiting branches, flowers and bolls and reduced the boll period (days from flowering to boll opening).  Salinity also reduced boll size, seed size and lint percentage.  As a result of these effects, salinity reduced seed cotton yield by up to 46% where 6000 ppm of NaCl was applied.

The effects of NaCl were greater than the effects of NaCl + CaCl2 or NaCl + KCl.  All cultivars had a similar response to salinity.

Conclusion

All fruiting characteristics and yield of the studied cotton cultivars were affected by saline conditions.  Higher salinity levels showed a pronounced effect and NaCl alone had a greater effect than the other mixed salts.  All three cultivars reacted similarly to salinity.

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EFFECTS OF SOAKING ON THE GERMINATION CHARACTERISTICS AND MINERAL LEAKAGE OF COTTON (GOSSYPIUM HIRSUTUM L.) SEED

Abstract                                                                         Back to Table of contents

Cotton seed (Gossypium hirsutum  L.) was tested to identify germination, seedling characteristics and growth as well as mineral leakage caused by soaking the seeds for different periods. Four cotton cultivars (BL. 644, Ç. 1518, DP. 299 and Sayar 314) were used with five different soaking periods (0, 4, 8, 16 and 24 hours).  Germination and seedling characteristics were tested in a growth cabinet at 25 ˚C.  The highest germination percentages were observed in all cotton cultivars with four and eight hours soaking, while the greatest abnormal seedlings were noted with 24 hours soaking.  Coleoptile and mesocotyl elongation and length were decreased with 24 hour treatments.  Vigour indices were decreased also with 24 hour soaking in all cultivars.  The leakage of K, P, Mn, Ca, Cu, Fe, and Zn mineral ions was increased significantly with 24 hour treatments.  The leakage of K+ and Ca++ ions was significantly correlated with the seed germination.  Zn++ was leaked less than other ions but the leakage of Zn++ was stable during other soaking periods.  Variation in seed mineral leakage was observed among the four cotton cultivars.

Conclusions

 These results indicate that soaking treatments of 4 to 6h in distilled water was helpful for better germination of cotton seeds and seedling establishment. Increasing soaking periods reduced germination. Soaked cotton seeds had leakages of K+ and Ca2+ cations, as well as Mn2+, Fe2+ and Cu2+. Similar conclusions were reported by Woodstock and Grabe (1967), Anderson et al. (1964), Cantrell, et al. (1972) and Woodstock et al. (1985).

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