Sudac-K, A Cultivar for Narrow Row Cultivation in the Sudan Gezira

At the Gezira Research Station, Wad Medani, Sudan, a field study was initiated in 1996 to determine the response of morphologically contrasting upland cotton cultivars to different row widths and within-row spacing. Sudac-K is a newly synthesized okra-leaf type, resistant to whitefly (Bemisia tabaci Genn.) and is claimed to produce less sticky cotton than the normal-leaf type, Barac (67) B, which is hairy and bushy, forming a closed canopy that favours whitefly infestations. In this study, a relatively narrow row (60-cm) was tested against the conventional check (80-cm). Single-seeding at within-row spacing of 15 and 10 cm were compared against the conventional hill-dropping (3 plants/hill) at within-row spacing of 45 and 30 cm. Data accumulated over two seasons showed that Sudac-K had a lower LAI than Barac (67)B throughout the growing season. The two cultivars, averaged over all other treatments, did not differ significantly in seed cotton yield. However, Sudac-K responded favourably to the 60-cm rows. Yields from single-seeding was significantly higher than that from hill-dropping at the same plant population. The okra-leaf trait, as an average of row widths and within-row spacing, caused a significant reduction in the numbers of whiteflies and consequently in the degree of stickiness. Thus the expected superiority of Sudac-K can manifest itself in several ways: increased yield under high planting density, improved marketability of less sticky cotton and reduced insecticides expenditures.

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Weeding Initiation Time and Frequency: Their Effect on Performance and the Economics of Weed Control in Cotton

Experiments were conducted at Serere Agricultural and Animal Production Research Institute (SAARI) in 1996 and 1997 to determine the time of initiation and number of cultivations to optimise returns and the cost of weed control. Weeding was started either early (30 days after planting, (dap)) or late (45 dap). In both cases, plots were cultivated four times at fortnightly intervals but where cultivation was initiated early, some treatments were cultivated five or six times. The herbicide (Tomen) was also tested. Reduced weeding from both late initiation and reduced number of cultivations reduced plant height, numbers of branches, fruiting positions, number of bolls and seed cotton yields. Weeding costs increased with higher number of cultivations but was optimized with early initiation and five cultivations. Non-weeded controls gave no yield while Tomen was ineffective against some dicotyledonous weeds species.

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Comparative Review of the Most Important Weather Parameters and their Impact on Cotton Yield under Greek Conditions

Important weather parameters and their impact on cotton productivity were investigated in three main regions of Greek cotton production. Daily values of air temperature, solar radiation and precipitation for the period 1994-1997 were used, recorded on data loggers in fully automatic meteorological stations installed in the three study areas. The total global radiation data were transformed to sunshine duration in hours. Crop development was assessed with the accumulated heat units method above a threshold temperature (10oC). It was found that the year-to-year fluctuations in cotton productivity could be estimated with this method, but only at a given area with similar management practice. Additionally, sharp drops in temperature during critical stages of cotton growth may result in appreciable reduction in crop productivity, even if the actual air temperature does not fall below the threshold levels for cotton growth.

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Physiological Effects on Cotton Plant Sown under Plastic Mulch

The physiology of the cotton plant was studied in cotton sown under plastic. This practice is widespread among cotton growers in the Guadalquivir River Valley (SW Spain). Field experiments were conducted in 1993, 1994 and 1995 at Alcalá del Rio (Seville). In one experiment, cotton was sown on two dates in March. This is very early and is not possible without plastic mulch because of low temperatures but it conforms to the usual custom of the growers. A second experiment was sown during the normal planting time for Spain in May, with and without plastic mulch. The first experiment used a split-split plot design with three splits, date of sowing followed by cultivars and then the number of days that the plant remained under plastic mulch (15-45 and 60 days). A similar design was used in the second experiment except that the date of sowing was replaced by the factor with or without plastic mulch. Physiological measurements on vigour, biomass accumulation (root and shoot biomass), LAI (leaf area index), horizontal and vertical flowering rates and boll setting and fruiting sites (plant mapping) were taken at several dates. Results showed that cotton growing under plastic mulch has a fast, luxurious vegetative growth at the beginning of season, with a rapid increment in LAI and a faster vertical flowering rate and an increase in the number of bolls on secondary sympodia than plants without plastic mulch. The root system was completely transformed, the main root being thicker and shorter. A remarkable increase in earliness and yield were shown with a serious propensity to suffer water stress. The increment in potential yield can only be realized with frequent, shallow.

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Mechanized Picking of Cotton Cultivated in Narrow Rows in Greece

The early cotton picker, adjusted to pick at 1 metre spacing, imposed this spacing on the traditional cotton cultivation system. Subsequent experimental results proved the superiority of narrower row spacing in many cases. Accordingly, in the 1980’s, many farm machinery companies in the USA started to convert existing cotton pickers to pick cotton sown in 0.75m rows. However, the superiority of this is expected to become more evident with modern low-input agriculture with smaller crop growth and late canopy closure under the imposed reduced inputs in the near future. This mechanized system started being evaluated for the first time in Greece, in a field experiment (split-split plot experiment with five blocks) carried out in two different locations in Thessaly in 1997. In particular, the growth and development of two important Greek cotton cultivars (i.e. Corina and Zeta-2) was studied for three plant populations (e.g. 10, 20 and 30 plants/m2) and two sowing row-spacings, the modern 0.75 m versus the classical row spacing of 1.0 m. It was found that the crop cultivated in narrow rows was generally earlier than that cultivated in conventional rows. The plants growing in narrow rows were smaller and more compact. They attained a greater leaf area index and were characterized by more flowers and bolls, giving a clear (though not statistically significant) evidence of an increased final yield. The superiority of dense rows was more apparent in the more compact cultivar “Corina”. No significant difference was found for cotton-quality characteristics among the various treatments. This is an ongoing investigation.

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Application of Soil Monitoring, Benchmarking and Crop Simulation in Commercial Dryland Cotton Management

Many agronomic decisions involve risk as many of the factors involved are unknown or uncertain (e.g. rainfall). History can often serve as our best guide to the potential risks and benefits of a particular strategy. The use of crop simulation models is a powerful, and often the only, way to address such issues. Participatory research approaches were used to address key issues in dryland cotton management through on-farm trials, crop and soil monitoring, and simulation modelling (OZCOT and APSIM). Model credibility was established through simulation sessions with small groups of farmers. Subsequently the results provided farmers and consultants with information on their soil, benchmarked performance of commercial crops, and provided an assessment of the impact and risk of their management decisions within the context of the whole climate record rather than a single season. The results were also provided to other farmers and consultants through established networks. Future studies aim to investigate the more efficient means of delivering systems simulation to industry.

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Long-term Cotton Based Crop Rotation Experimentation

Cotton is the main cash crop of temperate regions in Punjab, Pakistan, accounting for 60% of total foreign exchange earnings and providing above 55% of total employment. Cotton-fallow-cotton and cotton-wheat-cotton are traditional rotations of the region. Introduction of maize, sunflower and soybean has necessitated the development of new cotton based crop rotations with higher returns. Seven cotton-based rotations were tested over five years. Data were recorded on yield and yield components, fiber traits and soil nutritional status. Cotton-fallow (T-1) gave the lowest net annual return but the soil fertility improved. Cotton-wheat (T-2) gave the highest annual returns except in 1991-92 and also the highest five-year average. Cotton-sunflower (T-3) gave the highest returns in 1991-92 and was the second highest five year average but after 1991-92, returns and soil fertility declined. Allelic effect on next crop was also observed. Although cotton-maize (T-6) was ranked third on five year average, it was ranked second, second and first position during, 1991-92, 1994-95 and 1995-96, respectively. The five-year average second position of T-3 was due to high price of sunflower and cotton during 1991-92 so this rotation is unsuitable for farmers. Although T6 was third in five-year average, it is replacing T-2, the most common rotation of area.

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2nd SINO-PAK International Conference on Innovations in Cotton Breeding and Biotechnology, 2018


SINO-PAK International Conference on Innovations in Cotton Breeding and Biotechnology

26-27 November, 2018, Multan, Pakistan

Sino-Pak International Conference on Innovations in Cotton Breeding and Biotechnology 2018 organized by Muhammad Nawaz Shareef University of Agriculture, Multan is second event after a successful conduct of first Sino-Pak conference in collaboration with Biotechnology Research Institute (BRI), Chinese Academy of Agriculture Sciences Beijing, China and Bahauddin Zakariya University Multan held on November 22-24, 2017. The event provided the opportunity of collaboration among academia, researchers, industry and progressive growers to address the issues related to cotton production for enhancing the production of better cotton.

The conference aims to bring together academia, scientists, researchers, progressive farmers, industry and students to share and enhance the knowledge about innovations in breeding and biotechnology of cotton and to solve the problems faced by cotton for improving yield and quality.

Following are the conferences themes:

  • Cotton Breeding
  • Cotton Genomics and Bioinformatics
  • Sustainable Cotton Production
  • Cotton Seed Technology

You are invited to present your valuable research on various aspects of cotton at conference which will be held on 26-27 November 2018 at Muhammad Nawaz Shareef University of Agriculture, Multan, Pakistan.


Important Dates

Abstract submission 31 August, 2018
Abstract acceptance/rejection 25 September, 2018
Early bird registration 30 September, 2018
Full-text paper submission 10 October, 2018

The abstracts of registered participants will be published in the conference abstracts book. While full length papers will be accepted through a double-blind review process and will be published in International Journal of Agriculture and Biology (IJAB): a journal of international repute with impact factor.

Electronic version of abstract can be submitted before August 31, 2018 by email at:

It is highly appreciated if you can share this information among your colleagues and students.

For more details, please contact:

Mr. Furqan Ahmad

Secretory Conference

Phone: +923336191054