Comparative studies on seed protein characteristics in eight lines of two Gossypium species

[Abstract]
Background: In order to achieve the targets aiming at the improvement of protein quality, knowledge regarding seed protein fractions and polypeptides constituting them in different crops is essential. Besides having high nutritional value as animal feed and human food, the protein isolates from cottonseed meal have also been proven promising as industrial raw materials for a number of applications. As far as Indian work on the characterization of cotton seed proteins is concerned, relatively meagre reports are available. Keeping in mind the importance of cotton seed proteins, lines belonging to Gossypium arboreum L. (Indian cotton) and G. hirsutum L. (American cotton) which are grown in all the major cotton growing states in India were selected for analysing their seed protein characteristics.

Results: Whereas G. arboreum (A-genome) lines revealed a lower range of seed protein content i.e. 19.5~24.3%, an upper range (21.8~29.5%) could be observed in lines of G. hirsutum (AD-genome). Globulins represented dominating fraction in both species followed by albumins, glutelins and prolamins. A significant positive correlation between albumins/globulins and seed protein content in G. arboreum /G. hirsutum, respectively, was observed. Intraspecific electrophoretic variation in seed protein extracts was observed in the region of molecular weight 22 kDa – 27 kDa in lines of both the species; however some lines with A-genome showed similarity in banding pattern with AD-genome. Four polypeptides with disulphide-linkages were also reported for the first time. Albumins were observed to reveal more variations in their electrophoretic pattern between the lines of two species followed by globulins.

Conclusion: On the basis of present and previous studies, screening the lines with low or high protein content will lead the selection of lines with superior polypeptide fraction important for nutritional and industrial purposes. On comparing the composition and behaviour of four 2-S linked polypeptides with other plant groups, these were suggested to be legumin-like in nature. The similarity in banding patterns between the lines of A-genome and AD-genome species marked towards the close evolutionary relationship between these two. Albumin fractions on the basis of our results could be taken for cultivar differentiation in cotton crop.

[Keywords]
Gossypium, SDS-PAGE, Seed proteins, Globulins

Original text: https://jcottonres.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s42397-019-0024-3

[Authors] SINGH Arvinder, KAUR Amanjot

Use of genetic and genomic approaches for combating cotton leaf curl disease

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Authors

Rahman, Mehboob-ur-1; Ali, Ahmed1; Qaiser khan, Ali1; Abbas, Ammad1; Rahmat, Zainab1; Sarfraz, Zareen1; Khalid, Anum1; Gul, Maryam1; Munir, Atif1; Atifiqbal, Muhammad1; Scheffler, Jodi2; Scheffler, Brain2;

1National Institute for Biotechnology & Genetic Engineering (NIBGE) Faisalabad, Pakistan. 2Jamie Whitten Delta States Research Center, Stoneville, Mississippi, USA

Abstract

Cotton leaf curl, a disease of viral origin, is transmitted by a whitefly (Bemisiatabaci), was first reported in 1912 in Nigeria, and later spread to Egypt, Sudan, India and Pakistan, and recently in China. The disease has significantly challenged the sustainability of cotton production in Pakistan with annual yield penalty of two million bales. Efforts were made in developing resistant cotton varieties, which upheld the resistance for couple of years but overcame by the evolution of new strain of the virus (now called as cotton leaf curl Burewala virus). For protecting the most important natural fiber producing crop, a mega project aiming at the improvement of genetics of the cotton plant for combating the disease, was initiated in 2011 under Pak-US (managed through ICARDA, Pakistan) joint venture program. Till now, more than 3500 cotton accessions have been screened; and 33 accessions were found asymptomatic while G. hirsutum 2472-3 and G. hirsutum 3661 showed high tolerance to the disease. Among the asymptomatic, G. hirsutum Mac-07 (photoperiod insensitive) is being used extensively by multiple cotton research institutes for developing resistant cotton cultivars. A number of mapping populations by involving tolerant and resistant cotton genotypes with the mostsusceptible cotton species were developed. For example, mapping populations were developed by crossingG. hirsutum 2472-3 (tolerant), G. hirsutum Mac-07 (resistant) and highly sensitive genotypes G. barbadense PGMB-66, G. barbadense PIMA S7, respectively. A total of 1200 SSRs were surveyed on parent genotypes of G. hirsutum 2472-3 and G. barbadense PGMB-66 (Cross-I). Out of these, 113 were found polymorphic. These were surveyed on F2population. In second population (derived from a cross G. hir 2472-3/G. bar PIMA S-7, Cross-II), we surveyed 170 SSRs. Out of these, 24 polymorphic were surveyed on F2population. Similarly, we too surveyed 435 SSRs on the parent genotypes of third mapping population (Mac-7/PIMA S-7, Cross-III). A total of 18 polymorphic primers were surveyed on F2 population. Based on our limited studies, we were able to identify two QTLs i.e. QCLCuD25 and QCLCuD26 from Cross-I population study, six QTLs i.e. QCLCuD3, QCLCuD4, QCLCuD7, QCLCuD8, QCLCuD9, QCLCuD14 from Cross-II population study, and three QTLs from cross-III population. These studies will pave the way for not only initiating marker-assisted breeding for the development of resistant cotton cultivars in Pakistan but will also provide a comprehensive information to the international cotton community for combating the disease.

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Comparative advantage of cotton crop over other crops in Pakistan

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Author

DR MUHAMMAD ALI TALPUR

Director, Directorate of Marketing & Economic Research, Pakistan Central Cotton Committee, Multan, Pakistan.

Corresponding author =  dmer@pccc.gov.pk

mir_alitalpur@yahoo.com

Abstract

Cotton being a cash crop contributes significantly to the national exchequer of Pakistan. It accounts for 1.5 percent in GDP, 7.1 percent in agriculture value addition and Cotton and textile exports fetched US$ 10.22 billion in 2014-15 (Economic survey-2014-15) . Cotton crop covered an area of 2.96 million hectares in 2014-15 and produced 13.98 million bales. This paper highlights the economics  of  cotton as  compared to other competing crops in Pakistan. Cotton crop, competes with rice, sugarcane and other crops for land, water and other farm resources in the area where the cultivation of all other crops is technically feasible. Mainly cotton faces indirect competition from sugarcane, the annual crop which keeps the land throughout the year. The farmer gives priority and takes decision on the economics of cotton and competing crops on the basis of inputs-outputs prices paid and received. The estimation of the indicators, like gross cost, gross income, gross margin, net income, input-output ratio, etc may provide the useful sights to the growers at farm level.

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Nuclear male sterility in desi cotton (gossypium arboreum l.)

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Author

Dharminder Pathak

Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics

Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana – 141004, Punjab, India

Abstract

Heterosis breeding has played rich dividends in crop plants including cotton and is a sure way of increasing crop production and productivity in a shorter time span. In India, all the four cultivated species of cotton and their interspecific (G. hirsutum x G. barbadense; G. arboreum x G. herbaceum) hybrids are grown. In fact, India has been a leader in the production and commercialization of cotton hybrids. Earlier, hand emasculation and pollination was used for the production of hybrid seeds in G. arboreum in India. LDH 11 (1994) was the first commercial intra-arboreum hybrid in the entire North Indian cotton growing states. However, manual emasculation of the floral buds makes hybrid seed production more labour intensive. Availability of genetic male sterile (GMS) lines such as DS-5, GAK 423 has resulted in the development and commercialization of several desi cotton hybrids. Some of the intra-arboreum hybrids released for commercial cultivation in different North Zone states using DS 5 as the female parent include AAH 1, Moti (LMDH 8), Raj DH 9, CICR 2, PAU 626H, and FMDH 9. There are certain limitations nuclear male sterility system. For example, no marker linked to male sterility trait is available at the seedling state in DS 5 and male sterile/fertile plants have to be identified at the flowering stage only. As in a GMS line male fertile and sterile plants are observed in a frequency of about 1:1, and fertile plants have to be removed, about half of the plants in a GMS line are available for hybrid seed production, that increases the cost of the hybrid seed. Though, genetic control of male sterility in DS-5 is simple (monogenic), yet the transfer of this trait/gene in different lines is very time consuming due to its recessive nature. Efforts to map the gene conditioning male sterility in DS 5 with molecular markers are going on in our Department. Mapping of this gene will facilitate its precise  transfer across the genotypes and identification of male sterile plants at the seedling stage.

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Developing a DNA -based Technology for Identifying the presence and percentage of Egyptian cotton fibers in various textile products

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Authors

Mohamed A. Negm and Suzan H. Sanad

Cotton Research Institute. Agric. Res. Center, Giza, Egypt

Abstract

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a complex molecule found in almost all cells of the human body as well as other living organisms. DNA carries the genetic code that is needed for human cells and the organism as a whole. It is also the means by which genetic information is passed from one generation to the next.

In the past two decades, advances in forensic genetics have made it possible to perform paternity diagnoses involving solely the alleged father’s genetic information and that of his descendant when there is a high enough degree of biomathematical certainty in order to consider the results reliable. DNA technology becomes one of the forefront sciences in parallel with Nanotechnology.

The commercially grown cotton varieties used in production of textile products belong two different species, Gossypium barbadense, known as Egyptian cotton, and characterized by higher quality and price, and Gossypium hirsutum known as Upland or American cotton, and characterized by lower quality and price. Textile made from world-wide known Extra-Long & Long Staple Egyptian cotton varieties are of higher quality and price than those produced by Upland cotton. Thus, textiles produced from ELS Egyptian Cotton fibers are considered more valuable in the textile marketplace. In last time, there is no real method to indentify (differentiate) between the expensive cotton “Egyptian cotton” and cheap cotton “Upland cotton” in yarns, fabric, particularly, if the fabric made of blending the two cottons.

The aim of current research paper is to establish a DNA databases and technical methods which can be used at as powerful tools in the identification of Egyptian cotton and foreign cottons. The latter include many cotton species. Research output of the study would certainly guarantee protection of distinguished of Egyptian cotton, and reduces the counterfeits.

The study, indeed, address methods of isolating biological macromolecules particularly nucleic acids from mature cotton fibers. The cotton fibers are processed into yarns, woven or knitted to fabric or finished apparel, prior to the isolation of the biological macromolecules.

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A prospective for a New Leaf Grade by HVI

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Authors

Hazem Fouda1 and Mohamed Negm2

1Cotton Arbitration & Testing General Organization-CATGO, Alexandria- Egypt

2Cotton research institute, Giza-Egypt

Abstract

Trash is a measure of the amount of non-lint materials in cotton, such

 

as leaf and bark from the cotton plant.The instruments work on two principles either gravimetric based i.e., Advanced Fiber Information System, “AFIS” or geometric or surface scanner, ” HVI”. The percentage of the surface area occupied by trash particles (percent area) and the number of trash visible (particle count) are calculated as well.

Trash area solely is not enough for determining leaf grade while a ratio between percent area of trash and trash particle count is a good indicator of the average particle size in a cotton sample. A low percent area combined with a high particle count indicates a smaller average particle size than does a high percent area with a low particle count.

The Aim of the work is: 1) to develop a formula contains both Trash Area and Trash Count measured by the HVI to be used for determining Leaf grade, 2) to develop a New Leaf Grade depending on the developed formula afore mentioned as the current Leaf Grade depends only on the HVI Trash Area reading which is obviously incorrect.

A high percent trash area with low count should result in better spinning mill processing while small trash area percent with high count (pepper trash) should result in bad spinning performance and high nep count in the yarn as they are difficult to remove from the cotton lint than large trash particles.

Leaf grade is a measure of the leaf content in cotton, this research has resulted in a new formula for a new leaf grade which includes both trash area percent and trash count which was in line with the classer’s grade giving samples with small trash particles lower grade than samples with big trash particles unlike the HVI current Leaf Grade.

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Comparison of HVI, AFIS and CCS Cotton Testing Method

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Authors

Mohamed A. Negm1 , Suzan H. Sanad1 and G. Kugler2 1Cotton Research Institute. Agric. Res. Center, Giza, Egypt. 2Textechno Herbert Stein- Mönchengladbach-Germany

Abstract

Six Egyptian cotton varieties and two Upland cottons (Burkina Faso and Uzbekistan) based on a wide range of fiber properties i.e., fiber length, fiber strength, fiber elongation, short fiber content and micronaire reading measured by HVI, AFIS ” as High Volume Instrument” and new device Cotton Classification System (CCS-Textechno) “as Medium Volume Instrument” were analyzed and compared. The correlation among the three cotton testing methods was determined. The results indicated that both HVI, AFIS measurements were found to be comparable to the CCS except fiber elongation property.

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Effect of some spinning methods on spinning efficiency of egyptian cotton

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Authors

Nassar, M.A.A.1, M.A.M. Negm2, E.I. Ibrahim Abbas 1., M. I. El Bagoury3 and Eslam E.El –Sayed3

1Fac. Agric., Saba Basha, Alex. Univ., Egypt.

2Cotton Research Institute, Agric. Res. Center, Giza, Egypt

3 Cotton Arbitration and Testing General Organization

Abstract

The main objective of the present investigation is to evaluate the spinning efficiency for different commercial cotton varieties in addition to a new promising of Egyptian cotton using two spinning systems i.e., ring and compact spinning. Two Egyptian cotton categories were tested in this study, ElS & LS categories. The first one is an Egyptian cotton genotypes named Giza 88, Giza 92 belong to the category of Extra-long staple varieties in addition to a new promising variety Giza 93 which also belong to the same category . The second is the long staple commercial genotypes named Giza 86 and new promising cross namely Giza 86X10229 (New cross). The Egyptian commercial cotton varieties and promising crosses were spun into two different spinning systems (compact and conventional ring spinning) and four different yarn counts (60’s, 80’s, 100’s, 120’s and 140’s on the same twist multiplier (4.2).

The results obtained that compact spinning system offers better utilization of fibers and increases the spinability of the Egyptian cotton. In addition, there is a high correlation between the spinning system and yarn count on its physical and mechanical properties.

The new promising cross Giza 93 recorded the highest values of Single yarn strength (g/tex), elongation (%), yarn evenness (C.V. %) and Lea Count Strength Product which gained by the compact spinning system at yarn count 80’S compared with the cotton variety Giza 88 at the same yarn count and spinning system. However, the highest imperfections yarn values (thin places, thick places and neps count /1000 m) were positively associated by the cotton variety Giza 88 which spun at the 140’S yarn count and the ring spinning system.

The second experiment indicated that the best yarn quality for strength (g/tex), elongation (%), yarn evenness (C.V. %) and Lea Count Strength Product were recorded by compact spinning system of the cotton new cross namely Giza 86X10229 when spun at 40’S yarn count. On the other hand, the lowest values of the same traits were possessed by the cotton variety Giza 86. Meanwhile, the cotton variety Giza 86 supposed the highest imperfections yarn values (thin places, thick places and neps count /1000 m) with ring spinning system and 100’S yarn count.

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Evaluation of Egyptian cotton variety (Giza 90) and promising cotton Cross for yarn characters

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Authors

El-Banna, M.N. 1, A.A.A. El-Banna1, M.A.A. Nassar1, M.I. El-Bagoury2, Rasha M. Abdou2

1 Fac. Agric., Saba Basha, Alex. Univ., Egypt.

2Cotton Arbitration & Testing General Organization

Abstract

This investigation was carried out at Plant Production Department, Faculty of Agriculture (Saba Basha), Alexandria University, Egypt to study the effect of cotton genotypes and twist multiplier on yarn properties of commercial cultivar, Giza 90 and  new  hybrid  namely: H (G.83(G.75×5844) G80) as long staple (LS) were used. The two twist multiplier i.e. (3.6 and 4 T.M.) and the four yarn counts (24, 30, 36 and 40 Ne) on the same spinning systems (ring spinning) were used. The obtained results indicated that the long staple cotton new hybrid namely: H (G.83(G.75×5844) G80) and twist multiplier (4) recorded the highest mean values of the most importance of yarn properties. The strongest, longest and finest cottons produced the best yarn quality and were capable of acceptable spinning performance, in addition to the priorities. Yarn manufacturers are asking for higher fiber strength.

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Recycling of the cotton stalks to economic products between the importance and application

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Authors

Amal S. Owis

Cotton Research Institute, ARC, Giza, Egypt

Abstract

Cotton is the most important strategic crops in Egypt and plays a major role in the Egyptian national economy, because it is an important source of raw material in cotton textile industry as well as being a source for the production of cottonseed oil and used in animal feeding. Cotton stalks produced as a byproduct of post-harvest with large quantities of thousands of tons annually, causing many problems such as: 1. the farmer storing it on the roofs of the houses, causing fires when the wind coming, 2. or burning it causing significant environmental problems, which lead to spread of many human diseases, 3. on the other hand, cotton stalks contain eggs and larvae of pink boll worm, which remain dormant until cultivating the next crop, causing serious damage on the cotton crop.

Globally perception of the plant wastes during the past decades was changed, the thinking is shifting from search for ways to control it and minimize its damage to use it as source of income. Nowadays control of the plant waste does by using different treatment types such as biological or chemical or physical methods.

In Egypt the common way to get rid of cotton stalks are by burning it, which causing environmental problems. So this article  will show  how nowadays in Egypt thought regarding transforming it to some useful and economical products such as organic fertilizer (compost) , animal feed (silage) , Wood , cellulose derivatives and Charcoal, …..etc.

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