Background: In order to achieve the targets aiming at the improvement of protein quality, knowledge regarding seed protein fractions and polypeptides constituting them in different crops is essential. Besides having high nutritional value as animal feed and human food, the protein isolates from cottonseed meal have also been proven promising as industrial raw materials for a number of applications. As far as Indian work on the characterization of cotton seed proteins is concerned, relatively meagre reports are available. Keeping in mind the importance of cotton seed proteins, lines belonging to Gossypium arboreum L. (Indian cotton) and G. hirsutum L. (American cotton) which are grown in all the major cotton growing states in India were selected for analysing their seed protein characteristics.
Results: Whereas G. arboreum (A-genome) lines revealed a lower range of seed protein content i.e. 19.5~24.3%, an upper range (21.8~29.5%) could be observed in lines of G. hirsutum (AD-genome). Globulins represented dominating fraction in both species followed by albumins, glutelins and prolamins. A significant positive correlation between albumins/globulins and seed protein content in G. arboreum /G. hirsutum, respectively, was observed. Intraspecific electrophoretic variation in seed protein extracts was observed in the region of molecular weight 22 kDa – 27 kDa in lines of both the species; however some lines with A-genome showed similarity in banding pattern with AD-genome. Four polypeptides with disulphide-linkages were also reported for the first time. Albumins were observed to reveal more variations in their electrophoretic pattern between the lines of two species followed by globulins.
Conclusion: On the basis of present and previous studies, screening the lines with low or high protein content will lead the selection of lines with superior polypeptide fraction important for nutritional and industrial purposes. On comparing the composition and behaviour of four 2-S linked polypeptides with other plant groups, these were suggested to be legumin-like in nature. The similarity in banding patterns between the lines of A-genome and AD-genome species marked towards the close evolutionary relationship between these two. Albumin fractions on the basis of our results could be taken for cultivar differentiation in cotton crop.
Gossypium, SDS-PAGE, Seed proteins, Globulins
[Authors] SINGH Arvinder, KAUR Amanjot