JCR| The effect of time and type of stress moderators on yield and yield components of cotton on conventional and double-cropping systems under saline conditions

[Background] Today, stress moderators are employed to mitigate crop loss due to the adverse effects of environmental stress. The current research aimed to investigate the impacts of time and stress moderator types on agro-physiological responses of cotton on conventional and double-cropping systems during 2017 and 2018 under saline conditions. A split-plot factorial experiment was carried out in a randomized complete block design with three replications. Cultivation system [conventional (recommended planting date) and double-cropping systems (sowing after harvest of wheat)] were considered as the main plots, and stress moderator type at four levels [water control, 2 mmol·L–1 Salicylic acid (SA), 100 mmol·L–1 Glycine betaine (GB), and 100 μmol·L–1 sodium nitroprusside (SNP)] and application time (flowering and flowering + bolling stages) were regarded as subplots.

[Result] Plant height, reproductive branch number, the number of bolls, 10-boll weight, 1 000-seed weight, biological yield, seed cotton yield, lint yield, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, carotenoids, total chlorophyll, sodium, potassium, and proline content were less in double-cropping system comparing with conventional system. Spraying with the stress moderators alleviated soil salinity effects on yield, yield components, and biochemical traits of cotton. SNP spraying led to maximum plant height, branch number, the number of bolls per plant, 10-boll weight and seed cotton yield. SA spraying yielded the highest 1 000-seed weight, biological yield, lint percentage and lint yield. The highest chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, carotenoids, and total chlorophyll content resulted from SNP spraying. Yield, yield components, and biochemical traits did not respond to the stress moderator types in double-cropping system. However, the highest chlorophyll a, carotenoids, proline content, the number of bolls per plant, and seed cotton yield resulted from SNP spraying in conventional system. No statistically significant differences were observed between spraying with SNP and SA in most studied traits.

[Conclusion] The results suggest that the optimum cotton planting time and SNP spraying could be recommended for producing the most suitable yield under saline conditions.

[Title] The effect of time and type of stress moderators on yield and yield components of cotton on conventional and double-cropping systems under saline conditions

[Authors] BORZOUYI Zeinab, ARMIN Mohammad & MARVI Hamid

Journal of Cotton Research 2021, 428

https://doi.org/10.1186/s42397-021-00103-6

JCR| Knockdown of 60S ribosomal protein L14-2 reveals their potential regulatory roles to enhance drought and salt tolerance in cotton

[Background] Cotton is a valuable economic crop and the main significant source of natural fiber for textile industries globally. The effects of drought and salt stress pose a challenge to strong fiber and large-scale production due to the ever-changing climatic conditions. However, plants have evolved a number of survival strategies, among them is the induction of various stress-responsive genes such as the ribosomal protein large (RPL) gene. The RPL gene families encode critical proteins, which alleviate the effects of drought and salt stress in plants. In this study, comprehensive and functional analysis of the cotton RPL genes was carried out under drought and salt stresses.

[Result] Based on the genome-wide evaluation, 26, 8, and 5 proteins containing the RPL14B domain were identified in Gossypium hirsutumG. raimondii, and G. arboreum, respectively. Furthermore, through bioinformatics analysis, key cis-regulatory elements related to RPL14B genes were discovered. The Myb binding sites (MBS), abscisic acid-responsive element (ABRE), CAAT-box, TATA box, TGACG-motif, and CGTCA-motif responsive to methyl jasmonate, as well as the TCA-motif responsive to salicylic acid, were identified. Expression analysis revealed a key gene, Gh_D01G0234 (RPL14B), with significantly higher induction levels was further evaluated through a reverse genetic approach. The knockdown of Gh_D01G0234 (RPL14B) significantly affected the performance of cotton seedlings under drought/salt stress conditions, as evidenced by a substantial reduction in various morphological and physiological traits. Moreover, the level of the antioxidant enzyme was significantly reduced in VIGS-plants, while oxidant enzyme levels increased significantly, as demonstrated by the higher malondialdehyde concentration level.

[Conclusion] The results revealed the potential role of the RPL14B gene in promoting the induction of antioxidant enzymes, which are key in oxidizing the various oxidants. The key pathways need to be investigated and even as we exploit these genes in the developing of more stress-resilient cotton germplasms.

[Title] Knockdown of 60S ribosomal protein L14-2 reveals their potential regulatory roles to enhance drought and salt tolerance in cotton

[Authors] SHIRAKU Margaret Linyerera, MAGWANGA Richard Odongo, CAI Xiaoyan, KIRUNGU Joy Nyangasi, XU Yanchao, MEHARI Teame Gereziher, HOU Yuqing, WANG Yuhong, WANG Kunbo, PENG Renhai, ZHOU Zhongli & LIU Fang

Journal of Cotton Research 2021, 427

https://doi.org/10.1186/s42397-021-00102-7

JCR | Tolerance of Pima and Upland cotton to trifloxysulfuron (Envoke) herbicide under field conditions

[Abstract] Trifloxysulfuron (Envoke) is an acetolactate synthase-inhibitor herbicide and can be used to control many broadleaf weeds and nutsedges in cotton production. However, there is a lack of information on genotypic variation in response to the herbicide. In this field study, 60 Pima (Gossypium barbadense L.) lines, 122 Upland (G. hirsutum L.) lines, and 9 Upland × Pima segregating populations were divided into five tests (18A, 18B, 18G, 18RB, and 18HQ) to evaluate trifloxysulfuron tolerance at the 7-true leaf stage (42 days after planting) under the same field conditions in 2018. Across the five tests, Pima cotton genotypes tested in this study did not show any visual crop injury based on percentage of plants with chlorosis at 6 days after treatment (DAT), indicating consistent and high levels of trifloxysulfuron tolerance. However, the response to trifloxysulfuron within Upland cotton is highly variable. While Upland cotton is overall more sensitive to trifloxysulfuron with crop injury up to 80% than Pima cotton, 19 lines had injury below 5% including one line with no visual injury, and 19 lines had injury between 5% and 10%. In test 18HQ with 15 transgenic Upland cultivars and 17 non-transgenic Upland lines, the analysis of variance detected a significant genotypic difference. The broad-sense heritability estimates for trifloxysulfuron tolerance based on crop injury at 6 DAT was 0.555, suggesting that trifloxysulfuron tolerance in Upland cotton is moderately heritable. This study represents the first report that Pima cotton and many Upland cotton lines are highly tolerant to trifloxysulfuron with no or little crop injury.

[Title] Tolerance of Pima and Upland cotton to trifloxysulfuron (Envoke) herbicide under field conditions

[Authors] ZHANG Jinfa, ABDELRAHEEM Abdelraheem & WEDEGAERTNER Tom

Journal of Cotton Research 2021, 426

https://doi.org/10.1186/s42397-021-00101-8

JCR | Current advances in pathogen-plant interaction between Verticillium dahliae and cotton provide new insight in the disease management

[Abstract] Verticillium wilt is the second serious vascular wilt caused by the phytopathogenic fungus Verticillium dahliae Kleb. It has distributed worldwide, causing serious yield losses and fiber quality reduction in cotton production. The pathogen has developed different mechanisms like the production of cell wall degrading enzymes, activation of virulence genes and protein effectors to succeed in its infection. Cotton plant has also evolved multiple mechanisms in response to the fungus infection, including a strong production of lignin and callose deposition to strengthen the cell wall, burst of reactive oxygen species, accumulation of defene hormones, expression of defense-related genes, and target-directed strategies like cross-kingdom RNAi for specific virulent gene silencing. This review summarizes the recent progress made over the past two decades in understanding the interactions between cotton plant and the pathogen Verticillium dahliae during the infection process. The review also discusses the achievements in the control practices of cotton verticillium wilt in recent years, including cultivation practices, biological control, and molecular breeding strategies. These studies reveal that effective management strategies are needed to control the disease, while cultural practices and biological control approaches show promising results in the future. Furthermore, the biological control approaches developed in recent years, including antagonistic fungi, endophytic bacteria, and host induced gene silencing strategies provide efficient choices for integrated disease management.

[Title]Current advances in pathogen-plant interaction between Verticillium dahliae and cotton provide new insight in the disease management

[Authors] PALANGA Koffi Kibalou, LIU Ruixian, GE Qun, GONG Juwu, LI Junwen, LU Quanwei, LI Pengtao, YUAN Youlu & GONG Wankui

Journal of Cotton Research 2021, 425

https://doi.org/10.1186/s42397-021-00100-9